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who is admitted into the Penitentiary from the walks of prostitution, two will be found to occupy her place. On the other hand, the friends of the Institution may be too sanguine in their views of the moral benefits which will result from it; they may have more good intention than sound judgment; and the arts of designing women may make a bad use of their benevolence. Considering the description of females for whose benefit the institution is established, it may be presumed that the majority of those who present themselves at its gate are led thithe rather by "the sorrow of the world" than by "godly sorrow;" yet its discipline may in most cases have a good effect: though to calculate too largely on its advantages would betray an ignorance of human nature, and of the extreme dissoluteness of the age.
As to work-houses, and the operation of the existing Poor-Laws in restraining and reclaiming prostitutes, Mr. Hale and Mr. Blair are in point-blank hostility; the former sustaining his opposition by the authority of Mr. Moser, and the latter by that of Mr. Colquhoun, &c. the weight of argument, however, is on the side of Mr. B., who proves that the poor-laws are Inadequate, and require
Mr. Evans, in his pamphlet, does not enter into the merits of the Controversy maintained by Messrs. Hale and Co., but simply takes occasion, from the circumstances of the case, to level an argumentum ad hominem at Dr. Hawker, on account of his Calvinistic creed, which Mr. E. thinks cannot be made to harmonize with the Doctor's amiable heart and active benevolence. Are we to suppose,' he asks, that whilst you and your brethren discover such warm and persevering kindness towards the unhappy objects of seduction, the Divine Being should contract his love and prescribe to itself bounds which human benignity disdains?" This question is a very fair one, and it is followed by an attempt to induce Dr. H. to review those texts on which the horrible doctrines of Election and Reprobation are founded. Mr. E. presents those just and amiable views of the Deity which the gospel of Christ displays, in opposition to the gloomy creed of Calvinism, and concludes by expressing his own opinion, in the words of Dr. Doddridge : "That a BEING who is said, not to tempt any, and even swears that he desires not the death of a sinner, should irresistibly determine MILLIONS to the commission of every sinful action of their lives, and then with all the pomp and pageantry of an Universal Judgment, condemn them to eternal misery on account of these actions, that hereby he may promote the happiness of others, who are or shall be irresistibly determined to virtue in like manner, is of all incredible things, to me the mosT INCREDIBLE."
We may add that, while so absurd as well as horrible a tenet is held by Protestants, they should not laugh at Papists; whose creed, if revolting to common sense, does not outrage our feelings and blaspheme the Deity. Nothing in Euclid is more evident than that the Creator cannot be a God of Love if he could form a Being with the determined purpose of damning him to all eternity. Such a
Being, moreover, could not be an object of piety, nor could relis gion be a duty under his government.
Art. 46. A Letter to William Hale, Sc. by R. Hawker, D D. 8vo.
As a nice causist, Dr. H. may be desirous of ascertaining the curious point whether a woman ceases to blush after she has lost her chastity; and though perhaps the answer of most of the women of the town would tend to prove that blushes and modesty are closely associated, the matter at issue is very little benefited by the solution. Some other pamphlets on this controversy have appeared. Art. 47. The Penitentiary, or the Battles of Pentonville; a Mockheroic Poem. 8vo. 18. 63. Hatchard.
At the close of the dispute on the London Penitentiary, we should have been pleased to meet with something which would have relieved its dullness; and this something we flattered ourselves we had found when we took up the present pamphlet: but we have been sadly mocked by what is here improperly called a mock-heroic poem ; which breathes more spleen than fun, and in which the Saved Sinner of Providence Chapel, who has had the good luck to throw down a coal-sack and to pick up a rich baronet's widow, makes the most prominent figure. When the poet was put to such a shift to help out his loading, he ought to have known that his wit was not worth carrying to market.
Art. 48. Strictures on the Origin of Moral Evil; in which the Hypothesis of the Rev. Dr. Williams is investigated. By William
8vo. 2s. 6d. Conder.
Parry. Art. 49. A Vindication of Strictures on the Origin of Moral Evil, &c. By Wm. Parry. 8vo. 38. Conder.
Metaphysical writers are said to "reason high," but the height to which they soar generally makes their heads giddy; at least they contrive to produce this effect among their readers. No subject has more perplexed the human intellect than the origin of Moral Evil; and the moderns as well as the antients soon get out of their depth when they attempt to discuss it. Mr. Parry admits that it is both a solemn and a difficult question, and that without the utmost caution it will lead to statements which are scarcely consistent with that holy reve rence for the Deity which it becomes his creatures to entertain. The hypothesis here examined may be comprized in the four following particulars: 1. That a tendency to defection, both physical and moral, is of "absolute necessity," essential to all created existence. 2. That this tendency to defection, whether physical or moral, is passive power." 2. That the certain consequence of leaving intelligent creatures to the exercise of liberty, in connection with passive power, is sin; or that liberty terminating on passive power is the true cause and origin of Moral Evil. 4. That it is pure equity in God, to leave intelligent and accountable creatures in these circumstances, under which the inevitable consequence" is that their liberty will terminate on " their passive power," and produce actual sin.'
To such an hypothesis, objections will certainly present themselves, but they can scarcely be stated without exciting other objections: and thus no end can be put to the metaphysical controversy. Some of Dr. Williams's terms are certainly exceptionable but we think that Mr. P. does not always rightly conceive their meaning. It appears to us that he does not perceive the distinction intended by Dr. W. between tendency and actual depravity; and that his assertion that there is an essential difference between a tendency in creatures to annihilation, and any other tendencies, which they may be supposed to have while in existence,' will not be admitted. Justly does Mr. Parry remark that, respecting the Deity's permission of moral evil," clouds and darkness are round about him."-Against the account given in the 4th proposition, of the pure equity of the Deity in leaving intelligent creatures, &c; Mr. P. argues at some length, conceiving it to militate against God's moral attributes. He maintains that 'Dr.W.'s hypothesis gives a harsh and unwarrantable view of the Divine character-is the height of injustice, — affords no relief to the difficulties respecting the origin of moral evil; and that the scheme does virtually, though not intentionally, make God the author of sin.'
Though for these reasons Mr. P. is of opinion that Dr. W.'s sys tem ought to be rejected, he does not endeavour to substitute another in its place; regarding every attempt of this kind as vain and nugatory, since it is not the design of the creator to explain this subject to us in the present state. The hypothesis, which is the object of these Strictures, occurs, with several other peculiarities of sentiment, in the notes subjoined to an edition of Dr. Doddridge's works; a place which was not, perhaps, the most proper for such exhibitions.
A young Divine of the name of Hill having animadverted on the Strictures here noticed, Mr. Parry has taken the field against this young metaphysician: but, as Mr. Hill's definitions are not very accurate, nor his reasoning very correct, we do not deem it necessary minutely to notice them, nor to record the triumph which Mr. P. assumes in his Vindication:' it is proper, however, to observe that in the latter he apologizes for the length to which he has extended the discussion, by pleading the importance of the points at issue, as they affect morality and moral obligation. He opposes the hypothesis of Dr. Williams because it makes God the author of sin, supersedes the criminality of sin in the first instance, and may be adduced in extenuation of the most vicious propensities;' whereas the doctrines maintained by Mr. Parry are, 1. That the ever blessed God, the source of all excellence, perfection, truth, and purity, is the author of all good, of all that is or that ever will be morally good or holy in his creatures 2. That intelligent and moral agents are spontaneous agents. Actions may originate with them, otherwise there would be but one agency in the universe. 3. That all laws, human or divine, which take cognizance of the actions of moral agents, suppose or imply that criminal actions might have been otherwise than they are. If this were not the case, they would be most notoriously unjust. 4. That moral and accountable agents were not, in their original formation, under circumstances which
rendered transgression inevitable or unavoidable, for this would have destroyed their accountability. 5. That moral evil, or sin, though the precise mode of its origination must remain unknown to us, could not have had its origin in the agency of God, or in the uncontrollable circumstances of his creatures. To suppose the former would be blasphemous: to admit the latter would supersede criminality.'
Mr. Parry's representation is certainly more comfortable and satisfactory than that against which he militates, and his abilities as a reasoner are respectable: but, after all, he leaves us in the dark, exactly where he found us.
Art. 50 Some Account of the ancient and present State of Shrewsbury. New Edition. Small 8vo. PP. 557. Richardson. A plain book on a plain subject.- After a short account of the situation and a narrative of the history of the capital of Shropshire the writer describes its trade and population. The castle, the ecclesiastical buildings, the infirmary, schools, and country seats, have each their turn The Free School is remarkable for having conferred education on two very different characters, Sir Philip Sidney and Chief Justice Jefferies. This little work, without possessing any claim to the attention of the public at large, will be found useful to those who have a local interest in its contents.
We have received the favour of Dr. Clarke's note, and shall make inquiries on the subject of it. We have repeatedly observed that the cause of the neglect in forwarding our Appendixes into the country, of which we hear such frequent complaints, is the omission of a specific order from the provincial to the London bookseller, for those supplementary Numbers being sent with the current Reviews.
Mr. Greig's production is in course: but we are totally unable to keep pace with the natural impatience of authors.
We hope that T. F. - alias Verax, will accept of our excuses. So much has already been said on the subject of his publications, which is also not of general interest, and so much time has elapsed since the appearance of those tracts, that we beg to be allowed to pass them over. The copies of them lately left with our publisher will be re-delivered to Verax, or to his order, if he pleases.
M M., Poetess of Nature, is also desired to excuse us. Her letter, and her book, alike convince us that we can say nothing that will be agreeable to her, and it will be better for her to be contented with our silence,
The APPENDIX to our last Volume was published with the Num ber for September, on the 1st of October.
For NOVEMBER, 18гo
ART. I. Herculanensia; or Archæological and Philological Dispertations, containing a Manuscript found among the Ruins of Herculaneum; and dedicated (by Permission) to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 4to. 1. 149: 6d. Boards.
Cadell and Davies. 1810.
IN the 79th year of the Christian Era, and the first of the short reign of Titus, the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii were swallowed up, the former gradually and the latter all at once, by an earthquake which accompanied an eruption of Mount Vesuvius; and sixteen hundred and thirtyfour years subsequently to that event, these cities were discovered in the most extraordinary state of comparative preservation, though they had been buried for so many centuries in the bosom of the earth. The Genius of the fine arts among the moderns seized with delight this opportunity of holding intimate converse, as it were, with its sister of antiquity, by contemplating the busts, statues, and paintings which were still remaining in the cabinets and on the walls of these subterranean habitations. This wonderful discovery brought us nearer to the antients; their domestic habits and manners seemed more familiar to us from a survey of their dwellings; and when to this closer acquaintance with the specimens of their cultivated taste, was added the hope of retrieving some still nobler examples of their, unrivalled literary excellence,
* The benevolence of this Prince towards the unfortunate sufferers at Herculaneum, &c. would alone have been sufficient to gain him the title of father of his people. Instead of seizing on the effects of the sufferers who had left no heirs, he gave those effects towards the restoration of the destroyed cities: having declared that no public loss should arise from this affliction, he decreed that all the decorations of his palaces should be transferred to the temples and public works at these places; and he chose commissioners from the equestrian order to hasten the execution of those decrees. (See Suetonius.)