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Viewing the subject in this light, what are we to think of, Dr. Kidd's plan of proceeding, in which we find no attention paid to this great improvement of Werner, but the genera are retained, and the families entirely neglected? He has also placed the different species one after the other without any regard to their natural connections, and has in many instances raised simple varieties into the same rank with species. Indeed, he seems to have no clear conception of the first principles of mineralogical arrangement; since, while in one part he describes all the different kinds of coloured quartz as if they composed so many distinct species, in other places he confounds together minerals which possess well marked specific differences, as if they were merely distinguished by some trivial variations. As the work professes to contain the outlines of the science only, we ought not perhaps to expect a complete account of it; otherwise, we might remark that the deficiencies are numerous, and many of them important. Those points, however, which we shall select as by far the most objectionable in the performance, are the insufficiency and inaccuracy of the descriptions. After what has been done by Werner on this subject, after the publication of Jameson's Essay on the external Characters of Minerals, and after the clear outline drawn by Dr. Thomson in his System of Chemistry, how are we to account for these defects? Are we to suppose that Dr. Kidd regards his descriptions as superior to those of his predecessors; or are we compelled to the conclusion that a Professor of Oxford conceived it to be below his dignity to obtain information from the productions of a lecturer at Freyberg, or of a Scotch Doctor? Let us rather believe that Dr. Kidd was not apprized of these sources of knowlege than that he despised them; and that, when he is informed of their existence, he will diligently study them, and endeavour to transplant their excellencies into a subsequent edition of his work.

This deficiency, with respect to external characters, is not the only instance in which Dr. Kidd has discovered his want of acquaintance with the modern improvements in the science which he has undertaken to illustrate. That which Werner, and after him Jameson, call geognosy, (a harsh but an expressive and a necessary term,) Dr. Kidd seems to have totally disregarded. Little is said respecting the natural relations of the different species to each other; and this most interesting part of the science is either neglected, or introduced in the most vague and cursory manner. Similarly to this, we may mention the very scanty information here afforded respecting the nature of rocks, and their connection with the other constituents of the globe. Even in the department of crystallography, the peculiar

peculiar province of Haüy, on which Dr. Kidd has appeared to rest so much of his system,-is imperfectly executed; and the characters are hastily and inaccurately designated.

These strictures, we believe, will not be termed too severe, by any one who is competent to form an opinion on the subject; and we cannot in justice assign the work a higher character, since we are under the necessity of declaring our opinion that it gives a most inadequate idea of the science on which it treats. Yet, after having passed on it so unfavourable a judgment, we have something to say in its favour; and we are happy to embrace an opportunity of bestowing any praise, where we have been obliged to deal so much in censure. The style in which the volumes are written is clear and unaffected, the terms employed are well explained, and the whole is made interesting by happy illustrations and judicious allusions. Were the information that is conveyed always correct, the publication would be valuable, as exhibiting under a pleasing form the rudiments of a science which generally appears with rather a repulsive aspect. The quaintness of Kirwan and the uncouthness of Jameson may damp the ardor of a youthful mineralogist; and had we a work that was unexceptionable in its scientific execution, and was written in the style of Dr. Kidd's Outlines, it would be an useful acquisition to the literature of the country.

ART. XVI. Practical Observations on Strictures of the Urethra,with Cases illustrative of the comparative Merits of the Caustic and Common Bougie; also Remarks on Fistula in Ano, and an improved Method of treating linea Capitis. With annexed Cases, By Thomas Luxmoore, Surgeon Extraordinary to the Prince of Wales, &c. &c. 8vo. 5s. 6d. Boards. Highley. 1809.


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UBLICATIONS on the subject of stricture have, of late years, been unusually numerous, and they have generally assumed the tone of controversy. They have indeed almost entirely turned on one point, viz. whether the disease be best treated by the mechanical action of the common bougie, or by the application of caustic. Each side of the question has advocates of great repectability, persons whose education must have rendered them capable of judging, and whose practice might furnish them with sufficient grounds for deciding on the respective merits of the rival plans. Yet the opinions are so much at variance with other, that it is impossible to reconcile them; they cannot both be correct; and should we conclude that truth lies between the two extremes, we shall be obliged to regard each of the parties as having suffered their determi

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nation to be biassed either by undue zeal or by uncandid prejudice. That this is the state of the case, however, is to us apparent; and though Mr. Luxmoore will by many readers be deemed the advocate for the common bougie, yet we think that he may be justly intitled to commendation for his impartial view of the subject. He admits that the caustic is frequently employed with success, and that it is occasionally even more proper than the common bougie: but he urges that in most cases this latter instrument will be sufficient to accomplish a cure, and that it is then the safer and consequently the preferable practice. So far the author's performance is meritorious but we must add that here his merit stops, since he seems to have paid very little regard to what would naturally be the subsequent steps of the inquiry, viz. are there any means by which we can ascertain whether each particular case is a more proper subject for the one or the other of these instruments, and what are these means? Here, it appears to us that he might with propriety have entered more fully on the consideration of the probable effect of the two modes of practice on the varieties of the disease, the circular contraction, and the irregular thickening of a considerable extent of the cellular membrane. Although these varieties have been long known. to exist, yet we attribute considerable merit to Mr. Charles Bell, for the precision with which he has discriminated between them; and still more for his proposal of ascertaining the nature of any individual case by the application of the metallic balls. This suggestion is so plausible, and its application is so easy, that we are surprized that any practitioner, who has devoted a large share of attention to the subject, should not have made a fair experiment of its value.

We cannot bestow much commendation on the pathological and physiological observations with which this work commences, and which are, for the most part, common-place and unimportant. On another portion, we must pass more decided censure; viz. that in which Mr. Luxmoore seems desirous of shewing that he has something original in his method of treating the disease. This originality we find it difficult to discover he indeed is urgent in his directions not to use too large a bougie, not to keep it too long in the urethra, and not to employ too much force in opening the passage; -precautions which are very proper: but we object to the attempt to give an air of originality to that which is not intitled to it. In the same spirit, the author formally lays down the principles on which he conducts the cure:

1. That in every case of stricture, the dilatation made should be extensive.

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2. That the dilatation should not, at any time, be carried further than the feelings of the patient will allow.

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3. That the continuance of the dilatation, at each application, should be short; not exceeding, at most, a minute or two, till the urethra becomes accustomed to the use of the instrument.

4. That the stricture being once passed by the bougie, the ca theter or sound should be substituted to complete the cure, as instruments which admit of a more equal pressure.'

The first and second of these propositions are such as every judicious practitioner admits; the third is little more than a question of degree; and the fourth, which can alone claim any pretensions to novelty, seems to us rather inconsistent with the general tendency of the preceding observations.

A consi

derable number of cases are subjoined, which are illustrative of the method of treatment, and are related with candour. In some instances, however, Mr. L. appears to have deviated from his general principles..

Some of the most valuable of the practical remarks are those which refer to the enlargement of the prostate gland. A derangement of this part is frequently connected with stricture of the urethra, and the symptoms vary so much as to be discriminated with difficulty. The diseases of the prostate gland appear unfortunately to be almost beyond the reach of medical aid: Mr. Luxmoore considers mercury as of little use; and he seems scarcely to have hoped for any thing more than to palliate the urgent symptoms.

We now proceed to the author's observations on Tinea. He divides this disease into two species, the dry and the moist ; and he considers it as being propagated by contagion, but often connected with constitutional derangement, particularly of the stomach and bowels. According to circumstances, he prescribes emetics, drastic purgatives, tonics, and mercurial ointment to the abdomen. The topical remedies which he suggests are very numerous, consisting of a great variety of ointments and washes, which we doubt not may have been found useful but it is to be regretted that he makes no attempt to point out what preparations are the best adapted to individual cases, since we cannot suppose that they are all equally proper in all instances. On the whole, Mr. Luxmoore's treatise cannot rank highly either as a literary or as a scientific performance: but it deserves perusal, and may be considered to possess value, inasmuch as it states the opinion of one who is apparently well qualified to judge on an important practical question.



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Art. 17. An Introduction to the Linnaan Classification of Plants, illustrated with Engravings. To which is added a Glossary, and the Latin Terms of Linnæus with the corresponding English Words. By Henry Wyburd. 8vo. Pp. 100. 5s. Boards.

Darton and Co. 1810.

A PERSON, who is wholly uninitiated in the first principles of the Linnéan system of botany, may advantageously avail himself of this production, until he can readily discriminate the several classes. The author's phraseology is not always elegant, nor even correct; and his substitution of the French epithet nouvelle, for new, or original, savours of wanton affectation; while Vulgarus Erica, for Erica Vul garis, would lead us to suspect that he is more familiar with the vernacular than with the Latin nomenclature. His definitions, however, are, for the most part, sufficiently perspicuous; and the plates, by which they are accompanied, will greatly facilitate the conception of the botanical tyro.

Art. 18. A Calendar of Flora, composed during the Year 1809, at Warrington, Lat. 53° 30. By George Crosfield, Secretary to the Botanical Society of Warrington. 8vo. pp. 40. sewed. Wilkie and Co. 1810.

18. 6d.

Upwards of eight hundred phænogamous plants, reputed natives of Britain, are here registered, according to the days and months of their inflorescence, as observed by the author and his botanical associates. A few interesting marginal notes, chiefly supplied by Dr. Kendrick, F.L.S. induce us to point to that gentleman as well qualified for the execution of a work which is still wanted; namely, a series of rational and dispassionate observations on the real and alleged properties of our indigenous plants. Mr. Crosfield's present attempt to unite, at the least possible expence, an indication of the vegetable contents of his district with a notice of the period of flowering observed by each species, is well deserving of encouragement, and will, we hope, be imitated in different parts of the island. In some cases, such calendars might be conveniently incorporated with meteorological diaries; and even in situations in which no accurate record of the weather is kept, the adoption of a tabular form, and the suppression of superfluous capitals, might considerably abridge the size and price of these ephemerides of Flora..


Art. 19. The Principle of the System of Education in the public Schools of England, as it respects Morality and Religion, favourably, but impartially considered. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Hatchard.

Our public schools, that is to say, those endowed institutions for education which are subordinate to the universities, have had double charge preferred against them; first, that they neglect Chris


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