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in tears.

The conduct of Marie-Louise made him, probably, feel all the more keenly how differently Josephine would have acted.

Hortense and her boys were present at the ceremony of the Champ de Mai when the eagles were blessed. A few days afterwards Napoleon left to join the army. The victory of Ligny came to excite those momentary hopes and joys, which were destined to be for ever overthrown by the disaster of Waterloo. Hortense dined with the Emperor the day of his return. The next day she sent her boys to the house of a Madame Tessier while she herself went to Malmaison to prepare for the reception of Napoleon there. She had no hesitation in compromising herself; all she thought about was the welfare of the great man to whom she and her mother had been through life devoted.

When Napoleon quitted France for the last time, Hortense also took her departure with her boys, her heart torn with grief, from her native land. She sought refuge at first in Switzerland, but the republic signified to her that she could not be permitted to reside in their territory. She accordingly went to Aix in Savoy, where she was well known and much respected. She had, we have before seen, in her happier days founded a hospital there. To add to her misfortunes, Louis sent for his son Napoleon Louis to join him at Rome. To one so devoted to her children as Hortense was, this was a terrible blow, far worse than the orders she received soon afterwards to make Constance, in the Grand Duchy of Baden, her place of residence. Hence, however, she was enabled to visit her brother Eugène at Berg; she had never seen his children, and Louis Napoleon here first made acquaintance with his cousins, four girls and a boy. Wherever Hortense went, however, during her long exile, her footsteps were tracked, and her every movement was noted and put on paper. Many were the annoyances and inconveniences to which this close system of continental espionage subjected her at times. The education of the young prince, Charles Louis Napoleon, had been hitherto entrusted to M. Lebas, a man of learning and merit, but as he was growing up, and required more advanced studies, Hortense determined on removing to Augsburg, where he was placed for four years at College.

Napoleon had perished on the rock of St. Helena on the 5th of May, 1821; and Hortense, left after that event to move about with greater freedom, visited her relatives at Rome, passing the summer season at Arenenberg, a little property she had purchased for herself near Constance, and the winter at Augsburg, near her son. Her brother Eugène had a country-house also built near Arenenberg. The happiness brought about by this proximity was not, however, destined to be of long duration. Eugène died of apoplexy on the 21st of February, 1824. His son, Prince Max of Leuchtenberg, married the Grand-Duchess Maria of Russia. One of his daughters married the Prince Royal of Sweden.

Charles Louis Napoleon had an especial establishment at Arenenberg, and many relics of that pleasant home on Lake Constance now adorn the Tuileries. Among them especially a full-length figure of Josephine in an attitude of repose, by Proud'hon. A marble statue of the Empress, by Bosio, is also now on the grand staircase at St. Cloud. Hortense could read English with facility, and she had a bust of Byron as well as his works. Among the especial visitors at Arenenberg were the widow

of Marshal Ney, Casimir Delavigne, and M. Mocquard, now private secretary to the emperor.

The revolution of July found Hortense at Arenenberg, and Charles Louis Napoleon at the military school of Thünn. His elder brother had married his cousin Charlotte, daughter of ex-King Joseph, and resided at Florence. Associating himself with an insurrectionary movement in Romagna in 1831, Napoleon Louis perished of inflammation on the chest. Charles Louis Napoleon now alone remained to comfort the oft-tried mother. Together they went incognito to Paris. Louis Philippe received the ex-Queen of Holland with every outward mark of respect and kindness. He had been himself an exile, he said, and he could feel for others. But the government of July not the less insisted upon her departure for England, and if Charles Louis Napoleon, it was intimated, had a commission granted him in the French army, which was one of the objects of their solicitations, it must be under another name!

During her sojourn in England, Queen Hortense was the object of the most delicate attentions on the part of the ministers and of the élite of society-every one rivalled with the other, indeed, in making her sojourn agreeable.

On the 1st of August, 1831, passports arrived granting her permission to pass through France to Switzerland. Hortense and her son visited on this occasion Chantilly, Ermenonville, Morfontaine, Saint Denis, Rueil, Malmaison, and other places, endeared to the first, at least, by the most poignant reminiscences of fallen greatness. Arenenberg alone remained to her of all her former splendour. It was from Arenenberg that Louis Napoleon, who appears at the same epoch to have dropped the Charles, as he has since dropped the Louis, made his first attempt to regain an ancestral empire, by entering into the country at Strasburg in 1836. But, dismayed for the time being by the utter failure which attended upon this demonstration, he withdrew for a brief time to the United States, hastening back, however, when he heard of his mother's last illness, prepared to brave all dangers in the attempt to see her once more. His filial piety was rewarded by his mother dying, on the 5th of October, 1837, in the arms of a much-beloved son, thanking God who had reserved for her that last supreme comfort.

The remains of Queen Hortense were transferred from Switzerland to Rueil by Count de Tascher de la Pagerie, her cousin (Josephine was a De Tascher de la Pagerie), and were deposited in a catacomb opposite to that of the Empress Josephine in the ancient church of the lords of Buzenval. A mausoleum was raised over the vault in 1845 by Bartolini, of Florence; but one of the first melancholy duties of Louis Napoleon, when he became emperor, was to save the church of Rueil from the ruin by which it was threatened. The work of restoration of this interesting old church, the first stone of which had been laid in 1584 by Anthony I., King of Portugal, at that time an exile in France, was entrusted to Messieurs Eugène Lacroix and Manguin. Josephine and Hortense have now each their separate chapel, and a monumental statue adorns the latter, on the pedestal of which is the simple but pregnant inscription:

A la Reine Hortense,
Son fils Napoléon III.

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"MAY you win an ambo!" is a common imprecation amongst the lower classes at Genoa. As the serial lottery was commenced in that city, the Genoese well know from experience that a trifle gained in the lottery is pretty certain to lead the winner to ruin.

It was a Genoese, Count Calzabighi, who, soon after the Seven Years' War, introduced into Prussia the state-lottery called "Numeric," from the circumstance that the prizes are awarded to the holders of a series of numbers. In a very short time the passion of lottery gambling caught the fancy of all classes of society to such an extent, that it was found necessary in engaging servants to stipulate as a condition that they should not play in the lottery, while in many noble families the prohibition was restricted to agency, the valets and grooms having usually acted as agents for the official collectors, to induce their acquaintances to buy tickets from them. At a fair held in a village in Neuenberg, a wellmeaning gentleman proposed to the assembled crowd to play for nuts instead of money. The proposal was assented to, and the community and visitors played the whole day in this novel lottery. The nut-vendors got rid of their stock, and at the close of the game, towards evening, it was found that the entire supply was in the possession of the banker. The lesson was not lost upon the villagers, and the lottery never flourished in that quarter. In France games of hazard were abolished by the Constituent Assembly, but were revived under the Directory. Mercier, bribed by the promise of managership, with a salary of ten thousand francs, advocated the reintroduction of the lottery, in the Council of the Ancients. He was in vain opposed by Boissy d'Anglas and others, who reproached him with inconsistency, and reminded him of what he had previously spoken, and written on the injurious effects of lottery, but he audaciously observed, that he now looked at the institution from a different and much higher point of view, and that "if we cannot make the people prosperous, we ought at least not to deprive them of the means and hope of becoming so."

Bonaparte, who well knew how to profit by every evil sown by his predecessors, aggravated the mischief by extending the drawings of the lottery, which had been confined to Paris alone, to Lille, Bordeaux, Lyons, and Strasburg. Besides these places, there were, in the reign of the first Napoleon, also in Belgium, thirty-six drawings annually. The total amount of stakes (in 1838) amounted in France to sixty million francs, half which belonged to Paris alone. The gross revenue derived by the state from the lottery was calculated at fifteen millions, of which six millions, or forty per cent. were consumed in the working expenses, and the remaining nine millions formed the net profit of the government. According to Ganilh's estimate, the lottery revenue in the year X. (1801)

amounted to eighteen and a half millions, and the expenses to fifteen millions, or a quarter of the total amount of stakes. This revenue was taken from the pockets of forty-five millions of lottery players. Were it possible, observes the same author, to add to it also the sums required for the police, justice, hospitals, and workhouses, as the sad consequences of the lottery institution, it would be found that the expenditure actually exceeded the amount of the stakes. A lottery manager, or collector, in one of the districts at Paris, told a friend that he had customers who staked at each drawing four hundred to five hundred francs, and that most of them were small shopkeepers in the Rue St. Denis. The collector knew them well by person, though not by name, and he frequently advanced them the amount on pledges and other securities, such advances being the most profitable source of his income. When there were only two drawings monthly, the bakers in the lower quarters of the town found that on those two days the consumption of bread was much less than usual.

As a source of revenue, lotteries are the worst modes of taxation, since they touch probably to a greater extent the hard earnings of the labouring than the income of the wealthy classes. Some excuse has been made in favour of the lotteries, by the presumption that it satisfies the passion of gambling apparently inherent in human nature, and which, if it cannot find play at home will seek lotteries abroad, to the additional injury of the state's revenue. Such an argument might at best justify an honest system of lottery, but not that of a numeric, where the chances of a prize are precarious, and hardly even possible. Acknowledging the evil consequences of the present system, a new system was proposed by Ganilh and others, according to which out of the fortyfive millions of lottery-tickets distributed, twenty millions should be prizes, and the holders of the twenty-five million blanks should, with accumulated interest, be entitled to a sort of annuity at a certain age. Thus, evil habits of gambling are to be introduced under the mask of saving and economy! People play to win, but not to save, and he who wishes to economise should put his savings into the savings bank, or retrench his household expenses.

Gambling, we admit, is a natural passion in man, and it is more wise to avoid than to face the opportunity for play. Dusseulx wrote a voluminous treatise on gambling, chiefly to cure himself of that passion. He remained, however, to the last a most inveterate player. Indeed, how can truth or even probability master a passion that is content with a remote chance? Superstition is the gambler's creed, and the collectors and their agents are so fully aware of the fact, that numerous tracts on lottery-dreams are purposely and gratuitously scattered among the crowds. assembled before the office-doors on the eve of each drawing. You hear there conversations chiefly turning on the last night's dreams, which the paid interpreters of the agents usually point to some lucky number in the lottery, a ticket for which is soon procured.

Faro, vingt-et-un, rouge-et-noir, roulette, &c.—are still allowed in various states of the Continent. They are farmed out to companies, and the rent forms an important item in the annual budgets. Such was the

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case, also, in France until 1839, and the annual expenditure of the company was calculated as follows:

To government for the privilege
Working expenses





while the annual gross income to the company amounted to 9,600,000 francs, leaving for net profit 1,881,854 francs. This sort of state revenue covered a number of secret expenses. St. Crispin stole the leather from the rich to make shoes for the poor, while our neighbours across the Channel reversed the process-they skinned the poor to provide the princely prelates with red shoes. On the days of public mourning (Jan. 4 and Oct. 19), the deaths of Louis XVI. and his consort, all theatres and shops were closed, with the sole exception of the privileged gambling-houses, which were allowed to carry on their infamous trade without intermission, not to give an excuse to the company, or complaint of abridged working time. Political mournings, it seems, are more readily paid by tears than money.

But a very small portion of the immense gain of the banks is owing to the internal arrangement of the chances in their favour; it amounts to hardly five per cent. in faro, and only to three in roulette. The principal advantage of the banker lies in his own cool and passive bearing on the one hand, and in the eager, misguided passion of the player on the other. If a player were to go to work methodically, be prudent in loss and bold in gain, it is not improbable that fortune might favour him, or at least less frequently favour the bank. The main profit in certain hazard games consists in the rapid returns and circulation of the stakes. Rouge-etnoir, with its less favourable arrangement, is nevertheless more profitable to the bank than faro, with its better arrangement, while roulette is more profitable than either. In a paper read by M. Poissow, in 1829, in the Académie des Sciences, on the chances of hazard games played in the privileged gambling-houses at Paris, the author concludes with the following remark: "An habitual player, if he loses at the end of the year one-third of the capital he has employed in play, may be said to have been neither lucky nor unlucky, for he only contributes his quota to the maintenance of the establishment."

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