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both by precept and example, hath established natural religion to fuch a degree of evidence, that if reafon may in this refpect be called a torch to light those who properly cultivate it, the Gofpel may be denominated a fun to enlighten all fuch as fludy it with fincerity and humility of heart. There is no difference between them but in their degree of illumination. Thus, fhould a man, for example, behold the various objects around him, by the help of a torch at midnight, will he find them to be different at the rifing of the fun? Not at all; the vaft addition of light will only enable him to behold them more clearly and diftinct, and will difcover others beyond the feeble rays of his artificial meteor. Such is the affinity and refemblance between that natural religion which the Deity communicates to us by reason, and that which he hath revealed to us in the Scriptures. They cannot, therefore, be contradictory to each other, because there is in effect no difference, and there is but one God from which they are both derived."

Our worthy Author accordingly proceeds to refute fome dangerous fophifms, as he calls them, which are advanced in a work entitled La Religion entielle; the Author of which afferts, that the authority of the Scriptures cannot be pleaded against the common and univerfal principles of nature. In reply to this, however, Mr. De Luc obferves, that if the Author means, indeed, the first principles of all human knowlege, fuch as, nothing can produce nothing, the whole is greater than a part, every effect must have its caufe, no Christian Philofopher will difpute with him; but that most of the propofitions which he lays down as univerfal principles, are delufive or arbitrary; his argument being defective from a petitio principit, which renders it void and inconclufive. Our Author's refutations, however, of this Writer, are rather plaufible than convincing: it were, indeed, a masterpiece of cafuiftry, to reconcile, in a very fatisfactory manner, to our underftanding, the will of the Deity operating ineffectually to the falvation of finners, and that of the creature operating effectually to its damnation. The fame difficulty remains alfo, with the infinite, and yet ineffectual, fatisfaction of imputed righteoufnefs.

Mr. De Luc is alfo as little fortunate in his attempts to difprove the affertion of Mandeville, that, with regard to religion, the most knowing and civilized part of every nation have always the leaft. This affertion our Author treats as notoriously false and fcandalous; equally derogatory from the honour of religion and science. It feems to us, however, to differ little, in effect, from the declaration of a late eminent Bishop of the established

Clogher. See the Dedication to his Effay on Spirit.




church; who fays, "Whatever country you go into, let the religion be what it will, the ignorant and unthinking part thereof are always the moft orthodox." Mr. De Luc, undertakes, nevertheless, to fhew the falsehood of fuch infinuations, and enumerates feveral great names, that have made a distinguished figure in literature and science, and yet have been ranged on the fide of orthodoxy. Among thefe we find the celebrated Leibnitz ranked, with very little propriety, among a number of able and fincere Defenders of Christianity. That Mr. Leibnitz, however, was a man of that ftamp, we cannot readily be brought to believe, notwithstanding the pains our Author hath taken to wipe off the calumny, as he calls it, which his enemies have thrown out against him. Leibnitz glaubt nitz, or, Leibnitz is an errant Sceptic, has been too long a common proverb in Germany, for Mr. De Luc to eradicate its effects. There is nothing, fays he, in the pre-established harmony of this great Philofopher, or in his fyftem of Monades, inconfiftent with the perfections of God, or the free-agency of man. From what he bath advanced, therefore, in his Theodicce, and the external marks of affent that Philofopher o cafionally gave to the difcipline and doctrines of Chriftianity, he fets him down for one of its firmeft champions. We fhall not controvert the fact Mr. De Luc advances on this head, nor enter particularly into the orthodoxy of Leibnitz's philofophy; we will take upon us to affirm, however, that if he were really an orthodox Chriftian, he was a moft inconfiftent character, or rather a man of no character at all, and therefore, one whofe fuffrage can be of no fervice to the caufe it is brought to fupport. Indeed, after all, we wonder our Author fhould lay fo great a stress on an argument that can certainly have but little force with thofe, who believe, that "God hath chofen the foolish things of this world to confound the wife."

Mr. De Luc, throws out next fome few remarks on the philofophical Letter on Phyfiognomies, and Mr. Pope's Effay on Man; after which he proceeds to maul poor De la Mettrie, Author of, Man a Machine; concluding with fome very just reflections on a work entitled, Les Principes de la Philofophie Morale, taken chiefly from my Lord Shaftsbury.

On the whole, we can recommend this work, as a wellchofen and inftructive collection of facts and arguments, tending to the fupport of Chriftianity, against the attacks ufually made on it by the common herd of Sceptics and pretended Free



Poetique Françoife. Or,

A Treatife on French Poetry. By Mr. Marmontel. 8vo. 2 vols. Paris.


Thath been frequently objected to the Legiflators of Criticilm, that, while they have been magifterially dictating their rules and inftitutions, they have been totally deftitute of that genius by which only thofe rules could be put in practice, and for the guidance of which they obtruded fuch elaborate diflertations on the public. Hence it is, that occafion hath been taken to cenfure the Dictators in their turn, and to appeal from the laws and jurifdiction of fuch incompetent Judges. Thus, the Poet and Critic, who was equally a Mafter and a Judge of poe. tical compofition, expreffes himself in the following couplet:

Let thofe teach others who themselves excel,
And cenfure freely who have written well.

On these pretenfions our ingenious Author hath an undoubted right to take his place among the Dictators and Judges of French literature. Mr. Marmontel, who is a native of the South of France, difplayed the first efforts of his poetic genius in Toulouse, where he obtained more than once the academic prize. Thus, honoured by his compofitions, his afpiring difpofition, the frequent concomitant of merit, led him to Paris, where he foun acquired the confidence and efteem of Mr. Voltaire; who adopted him into his poetic family. Under the patronage and tuition of fo great a Mafter, it is no wonder our young Adventurer fhould make confiderable improvement: he diftinguished himfelf, indeed, very foon among the foremost of the Voltaire fchool. His tragedy of Ariftomane got him great reputation; and several other ingenious performances have been published by him with fuccefs. Initiated fo happily into the mysteries of his art, and fe juftly encouraged by public approbation, the task in which he is here engaged, appears in every refpect fo well adapted to his abilities, that we fhould have been furprized, had he failed in the execution of it. It is to be obferved, however, that this is not fo much a treatife of poetry in general, as of French poetry in particular; a diftinétion very neceflary for the Reader to make, if he would not be difappointed in the perufal of this performance.

In the first volume, our ingenious Critic treats of poetry in general; of the talents of a Poet; of his ftudies; of a poetical ftyle; of images and colouring; of the harmony of ftyle; of the mechanism of verfification; of invention; of choice in imitation; of probability, and the marvellous: on all which fubjects, this agreeable and judicious Writer hath felected the

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beft obfervations of his predeceffors, which he hath confirmed, or illuftrated, by his own.

In the fecond volume, he treats of the feveral forms of poetical compofition: of tragedy; of the epopea; of the ode; of comedy; fable; the eclogue; elegy; of didactic poetry; and of figurative pieces.

In the chapter of tragedy, our ingenious Author makes fome judicious reflections on the dramatic Unities, as they are called, and particularly confiders the objection made by M. Dacier, to the action of the modern drama. "Les actions, faid that celebrated Critic, de nos tragedies ne font prefque plus des actions vifibles; qu'elles fe paffent la plupart dans des chambres et des cabinets; que les fpectateurs n'y doivent pas plus entrer que le Choeur; et qu'il n'eft pas naturel que les Bourgeois de Paris voyent ce qui fe paffe dans les cabinets des Princes." Mr. Marmontel obviates the force of this objection, by obferving, that the spectator is prefent at the scene of action only in idea; and that it was full as natural for a Citizen of Athens to fit in the theatre of Bacchus, and fee what paffed in the closets of his fellow Citizens, as to fee what was doing under the walls of Troy. If there is no abfurdity in being transported from Paris to the Capitol, at the beginning of the first act, there is furely ftill lefs in being carried from the Capital to Brutus's palace, during the interval between the firft and fecond. But the fpectator is always fuppofed to be ideally, and not perfonally, prefent; hence the impropriety of the actors addrefling the audience. And yet, if the fpectators were prefent, they would be alfo vifible, and it would be not only natural for the actor occafionally to addrefs them, but it would be abfurd for him to speak and act as if nobody was by. It is to be fuppofed, therefore, that the actors themfelves only are witnefles of the action.

But we have not room to make any farther quotations from this ingenious work; which, tho' it be more peculiarly adapted to the natives of France, than to thofe of any other country; and is, on the whole, rather too diffufe for a didactic performance, abounds with a variety of pertinent and fenfible remarks on poetical fubjects.


Art. 1. Elemens de Geometrie, contenant les Six Premiers Livres D' Euclide, mis dans un nouvel Ordre, et à la portée de la Jeune fous les Directions de M. Le Prefeffeur Koenig, augmentés de l'onzieme et douzieme Livre, par J. J. Blaffiere. Or,



The Six first Books of Euclid's Elements, difpofed and illuftrated in a Manner entirely new, for the Ufe of Students, under the Directions of Profeffor Koenig. To which are added, the eleventh and twelfth Books, by J. J. Blaffiere. 4to. Printed for Van Os at the Hague, and imported by Becket H and De Hondt. 1762.


HIS edition of Euclid hath a great advantage over most others. in the difpofition of the feveral parts of the fubje&t, references, &c. The figures alfo, being conftantly printed on the page, and repeated as often as required, greatly affift the Learner in comprehending the feveral propofition, illuftrated thereby.

Art. 2. Effai fur la Pefanteur. Par M. L**. Or, An Essay on Gravity. 12mo. Dijon. 1762.

When Galileo, and the reft of the modern Philofophers, undertook to difprove the notion of Aritotle and the antients refpe&ting the pofitive levity of bodies, they certainly forgot the brains of a Frenchman; at leaft, if they would not admit thefe to be pofitively light, they would have been horribly puzzled to have found a lighter medium in which they would gravitate. And that we cannot be much mistaken in this particular, is cert in, if the effect produced be fuppofed to partake of the nature of the producing caufe; for, of all the arguments contained in this performance, on the weight of bodies, we do not find a fingle one of them of any weight at all.

Art. 3. Effai fur les Bois de Charpente, &c. Or, An Effay on the Nature and Duration of Timber employed in Building. By the Society of Architects at Paris. 12mo. 1763.

This work, which confifts only of 120 pages, appears to be a very judicious and useful performance; being calculated to inftruct Carpenters and others, in the choice and preparation of fuch timber as is beft adapted to the parpefes of building.

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Art. 4. Infiitutiones Philofophica in novam Methodum Digefta, kutore M, P, L, R, I, S, P, S, P, N, N, E, A, M, L, V, S. Or, Philofophical Inftitutions, digefted in a Method entirely new. By Mr, P, L, R, &c. 12mo. 3 vols. Paris, 1762.

Who this philofophical Inftitutor is, with a troop of initials tacked to his tail, we are not properly informed; but that he is as great a Renovator, as an Innovator in philofophy, may be gathered from his maintaining the doctrine of innate ideas. in contradiction to Ariftotle, Gaffendi, and Locke. Plurime Jurt ergo isce quæ ortum non habent a Infibas, ac proindè graviter poft aristotelem erravit Gaffendus, contrarium propugnon 0.-There feems to be a fine forward crop of Philofophers growing up on the continent, if they are not timely nipt in

the bud.

Art. 5. Hiftoire Abregée des Infeftes, qui fe trouvent aux Environs PP 3


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