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NATURAL HISTORY. (Continued from page 411 of Vol. I.)

We have now completed our survey of animals of the cat kind. In all of them, from the lion down to the domestic puss, we find a similarity of temperament and conformation, with the exception of the chetah, which occupies a middle station between the cat and the dog kinds. The animals of this class, as we have seen, are the lion, the puma or cougar, the tiger, the jaguar, the leopard, the panther, the chetah, the lynx, the caracal or siya-gush, the ounce, the ocelot, the serval, the tiger-cat, the margay, the wild-cat, and the domestic cat.

The whole feline race are the natural enemies of man; and they are the only quadrupeds that make good their ground against him, keeping some portions of the earth in their entire possession. Witness the extensive territories in Africa where the wild beasts are so numerous that the natives are deterred from taking up their residence among them; yielding to the dominant lion and leopard large tracts of country that seem adapted to human convenience.

The animals of this class are distinguished by sharp and formidable claws, which they can extend and close at pleasure. They lead a solitary, ravenous life, uniting neither for mutual defence nor support. Except at certain seasons, they are enemies to each other. They subsist entirely on flesh, and would starve on other food. In their natural state, they are rapacious and cruel, and unfit even for the society of one another, much less for human society, like some domestic animals. It is probable, however, that the fiercest of them could be domesticated. Even the lion himself has been yoked to the conqueror's car, and the tiger taught to guard those herds which in his wild state he destroys. But so great is the trouble of domesticating and subsisting them, that notwithstanding they might be rendered thus serviceable, their service would be obtained at too dear a rate, and consequently they are permitted to roam at large in their native wilds and deserts.

While other kinds of animals are classed with no little difficulty, having but few points of resemblance, and different appetites and dispositions, those of the cat kind, though differing in size and colour, have notwithstanding a near resemblance in the leading traits of their character. All are fierce, rapacious, and artful; all are unchanging in their forms, bearing, even in their domesticated state, the marks of their original wildness. The dog and the cow vary according to circumstance and clime; but the lion, the tiger, the leopard, and the panther, are every where essentially

the same.

We have now done with this ferocious tribe. As a class, it stands pre-eminently conspicuous in the animal kingdom. At its head is the monarch of the forest, the noble and majestic lion. For this reason, we have given this class the first place, contrary to the usual course pursued in natural history. In our next, we shall introduce to the notice of our readers that huge mass of animated matter, the elephant.

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minate over artificial language, and the whole earth would have the same dialect. No education, no localities, no circumstances whatever, could eradicate such a language, and substitute another in its place. As soon would the lion's roar or the tiger's yell be changed to the melodious notes of the nightingale.

As a further proof of this position, we have only to consider the case of children. These have no language till they learn it of others; and then it is of that kind which they chance to learn. Were they to learn none at all, they would have none at all; as is proved in the case of individuals who have from their infancy been secluded from human society. Peter the Wild Boy, whose biography we gave on page 15 of our 1st. Vol. is a case in point. We have another case in the experiment made by Psamiticus, king of Egypt, and Melabdin Echbar,† in the Indies, who, being desirous of ascertaining the innate or natural language, had some infants brought up without being taught to speak, or permitted to hear any human voice. The result was, that they proved to be little more than mere mutes. The sound which after two years experiment these infants were found to utter, viz. bec, somewhat resembling the Phrygian word for bread, and which Psamiticus therefore supposed to be of Phrygian origin, was a mere sound, void of any signification whatever; such as the dumb, and indeed the veriest infants, sometimes happen to utter.

Man, then, has no inherent language. But he has the capacity of acquiring language from another? The inquiry therefore next arises, How came language in the world? How came the first man by language? The conclusion is obvious: It must have been communicated to him by his Creator. There was therefore an original but not an innate language; and this language had a Divine origin.

The next proper inquiry seems to be, What was the nature of this original language? Undoubtedly it was very simple and limited. The longer a language is in use, the more complicated and copious it becomes. Consequently, at its outset it is less so. It has been supposed that language at first had but one part of speech. Without endorsing this opinion, we will give the reasons of its advocates a hearing.

"All that the first men," says Shuckford, "could have occasion to express to one another," must be a few of the names and qualities and actions of the creatures or things about them; and they might probably endeavour to express these by one and the same word. The Hebrew language has but few adjectives; so that it is easy to see how the invention of a few names of things may express things and their qualities. The name man, joined with the name of some fierce beast, as lion-man, might be the first way of expressing a fierce man. Many instances of the same sort might be named; and it is remarkable that this particular is extremely agreeable to the Hebrew idiom. In the same manner the actions of men or creatures might be described; the adding to a person's name the name of a creature remarkable for some action, might be the first way of expressing a person's doing such an action; our English language will afford one instance, if no more, of this matter. The observing and following of a person wherever he goes is called dogging, from some sort of dogs performing that action with great exactness; and therefore Cain Dog Abel may give the reader some idea of the original method of expressing Cain's seeking an opportunity to kill his brother, when the names of persons and things were used to express the actions which were done, without observing any variation of mood and tense or number or person for verbs, or of case for nouns. For all these were improvements of art and study, and not the first essay and original production. Time and observation taught men to distinguish language into nouns and verbs; and afterwards made adjectives and other parts of speech. Time and con

* Herod, lib. ii.

+ Purchas. b. i. c. 8

trivance gave to nouns their numbers; and in some lan- | whether Shem, Ham, and Japheth continued with Noah, gunges a variety of cases, which varied verbs by mood, or accompanied their posterity to Shinar. Egypt is tense, number, person, and voice: in a word, which indeed denominated the land of Ham, and Palestine found out proper variation for the words in use, and the land of Canaan. But those countries might be made men thereby able to express more things by them, named thus, even if neither Ham nor his son ever saw and in a better manner, and added to words in use new them. It is hardly supposable, that so distinguished and different ones, to express new things, as a further men as the three sons of Noah would remain unnotiacquaintance with the things of the world gave occa- ced, if they had accompanied the emigrants to Shinar. sion." It is true Shem's age, as well as that of Noah, is given; but they do not appear to have figured at all, or to have been otherwise noticed. We conclude, therefore, that they remained with Noah, while the younger and more vigorous portion of mankind journeyed in search of fresh adventures. We see but one objection to this supposition, viz. that the age of one of these individuals is given; from which we should be led to infer that they were not separated from the main body, but continued where their ages could be known and recorded. Yet it should be kept in mind that they lived till after the Dispersion, and consequently that the same difficulty would exist in relation to ascertaining their ages, as if they had not come to Shinar at all. In all probability, a communication was kept open between the separated portions of mankind, by which means this and other particulars were made known to one another.

We come, then, to the following conclusion: that neither Noah nor his three sons went to Shinar, and that Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, was the Leader of the party that did go thither.

Having now reduced the subject to something definite, and found a starting point, we will proceed with our history.

This theory is indeed plausible and curious; but we incline to the opinion that when God gave to man a language, he gave him a perfect one, containing all the parts of speech and modifications necessary to the clear communication of his ideas. This seems to us more in consonance with the idea of a revealed language; whereas the theory just considered is more in agreement with the idea of a natural or innate language.

We shall pursue this subject in our next, and in many of the succeeding numbers, as we intend to treat it thoroughly ere we leave it.


(Continued from page 410 of Vol. I.)

The journeying of the descendants of Noah from the East, which has already been noticed, consisted, no doubt, of various migrations, made at different periods, their object being, to find a country that would suit them. Not a few years, therefore, must have elapsed, from the commencement of their peregrinations to the time of their arrival on the plains of Shinar; especially, if, as we have supposed, they made a circuitous route from Armenia, journeying thence by gradual stages to the regions east of Shinar, ere they bent their steps towards that place. This idea of a circuitous route we find confirmed by a striking passage in Berosus already quoted. After having represented Noah and several others as disappearing, he says: "The remainder offered sacrifices to the gods, and, taking a circuit, journeyed towards Babylonia." According to the computation of some, they reached that land about eighty years after the Flood, viz. in the year of the world, 1736. Authors differ, however, with regard to this period. Some make it four hundred years after the Deluge. This we conceive to be a great mistake. For the earth was divided in the days of Peleg; and he died but three hundred and forty years after the Flood. Most chronologers concur in the opinion, that it was a hundred and fifty years after that event that the foundation of Babel was laid. This is probably near the truth.

About one hundred and fifty years, then, after the Deluge, it seems the main body of the descendants of Noah, after various migrations from place to place in quest of a country to their liking, chanced, while wending their course westerly, to find a plain in the land of Shinar, where they settled. Their leader appears to have been Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, and the son of Cush. Of him it is said :-" -"He began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod, the mighty hunter before the Lord. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." During the the roamings of mankind through the various regions of the East prior to their settlement in Shinar, they must have been almost continually in the wilderness, the earth being at that period unsettled. Con sequently, they must frequently have encountered wild beasts. This afforded a fine opportunity to enterprise and ambition to display their skill and prowess in their destruction. Nimrod, it seems, distinguished himself above all others in this respect; and as a reward for his services, he appears to have been selected as the Chief of that portion of mankind. It does not appear

After the party above mentioned had taken up their abode in the plain of Shinar, they took it into their heads to build a tower of vast height, to serve as a bond of union to keep them together in one community. So they commenced their operations by making brick, the plain which they inhabited furnishing them with clay in abundance for the purpose, and being at the same time destitute of stone. Several years are supposed to have been spent in preparing materials for building. These being ready, they began to construct their tower, using slime for the want of mortar.

The time occupied in building this tower, and the height to which it was reared, have been variously estimated. Some have supposed the time twenty years, and others even longer. According to the opinion of some, the height attained was a league; and some have supposed it was two leagues. The fact undoubtedly is, that years were employed in its construction, and that it was raised to a great height, though far less than either of the foregoing suppositions would lead us to conclude. This stupendous structure consisted of tower heaped on tower, diminishing in size at every stage of their altitude, with a staircase winding round the exterior, for the conveyance of the building materials upward to the workmen at the top, who were still engaged in raising it higher. While thus engaged in their ambitious project, fancying that they were rendering their names immortal, behold! their language became most strangely confused, insomuch that they could not understand one another. For God had come down and confounded their speech, giving them diverse tongues, whereby the utmost confusion was introduced; and thus were they induced to abandon their undertaking, and were at length scattered abroad over the face of the earth. Hence the abandoned tower obtained the name of Babel, that is, Confusion.

The cut on the next page represents the principal mound of Babylon at the present time. It is reputed to be, and no doubt is, the Tower of Babel--the identical Babel built more than 4000 years ago. It is situated near the Euphrates, fifteen or twenty miles from Bagdad. Its appearance is that of the fallen and decayed pyramid, with the remains of a tower on the summit 50 feet in height, the rubbish whereon it stands being 200feet high. It seems to have risen in distinct stages or

platforms, of which the remains are still visible. The | part of one of those platforms; and there were undoubta remaining

surmounts is

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The following description of the building of Babel and the confusion of tongues is from Josephus.

"Now the sons of Noah were three, Shem, and Japhet. and Ham, born one hundred years before the deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from their higher places, to venture to follow their example. Now the plain in which they first dwelt was called Shinar. God also commanded them to send colonies abroad, for the thorough peopling of the earth, that they might not raise seditions among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner. But they were so ill-instructed that they did not obey God; for which reason they fell into calamities, and were made sensible by experience of what sin they had been guilty. For when they flourished with a numerous youth, God admonished them again to send out colonies; but they, imagining that the prosperity they enjoyed was not derived from the favour of God, but supposing that their own power was the proper cause of the plentiful condition they were in, did not obey him. Nay, they added to this their disobedience to the Divine will, the suspicion that they were therefore ordered to send out separate colonies, that being divided asunder, they might the more easily be oppressed. "Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God.


as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured their happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his own power. He also said, "He would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach; and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers."

Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece o.. cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work. And, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high sooner than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burned brick, cemented together with mortar made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners, but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them diverse languages, and causing, that through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel. confusion."

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an arrow from the unerring bow of Apollo_quickly winged its flight to the heart of Amion. The cup of grief of the widowed, childless Niobe was now filled to overflowing. Disgusted with life, she went forth into the wilderness, there in solitude to pour forth her tears. Her melancholy and deplorable fate excited the compassion of the gods themselves, and determined them to put a period to her woes. On a sudden, the once beauteous but now disconsolate Niobe found herself deprived of the power of motion, and gradually stiffening into stone. And there on Mount Sipylus she stands, a statue of solid marble; still, however, shedding tears, as if conscious of her former grief. Pausanias, a Greek writer of the second century, who was not a little fond of the marvellous, tells us that on this mount he saw the wondrous statue. "When you are near it," says he, "it is nothing but a steep rock, bearing no resemblance at all to a woman, much less to one weeping; but when you are at some distance, you might imagine it to be the figure of a female in distress."

The story of Niobe has been a favourite subject for sculptors; and it is probable there were once several groups representing the mother and her children. One of these groups forms the Frontispiece to our first volume. Pliny speaks of one in a temple of Apollo at Rome in his time.

In about an hour from hence we passed under another Christian village on the summit of a high hill on our left. This was called Aytou, and though small, had several large and well-built dwellings in it. The road became here so fatiguing to our horses, as to require occasional halts. It was in many places dangerous too, as it presented only a bed of smooth stones, on which the foot could take no hold. The layers of rock having exactly the same form as the surface of the soil and shape of the mountain, presented in masses a steep smooth side, over which it was necessary to lead our animals, and to use great caution ourselves. This same cause renders many parts of the road along the coast disagreeable.

It was fully another hour before we reached the summit of the mountain, this part of which is called Jebel Arrneto. The whole body of this is white limestone rock of different qualities, and here the stone has streaks, or layers of red, as if coloured by the oxide of iron, or some other metal. There was, at this moment, snow still remaining here, though the heat of the sun was nearly equal to that of an English summer. Flocks of large white long-haired goats were browsing on the rocks, under the care of boys and their faithful dogs; and pines and young cedars of a smaller size were abundant. The view from hence, on looking westward, commands an unbounded horizon at sea, with the whole of the coast from Ras-el-Shukkah to the extreme northern point of land seen from Tarabolus. The port and island of that town bore from us about N. by W. W. perhaps fifteen miles; but the town itself was not visible, from the intervention of the hill which overhangs it. The whole of the plain below, with the deep valleys which intersect it, looked beautiful from hence, presenting corn lands of the freshest green, bare patches of ploughed land, showing a deep red soil, and olive trees, and streams of water in abundance. The bluff point of Ras-el-Shukkah, which had been called, according to Strabo, the Face of God, from an idea of its being the end of Lebanon, looked from hence quite insignificant, from being so much lower than our own level; and the white hills and valleys, over which we had crossed with much fatigue, now looked like the little eminences raised by ants, and resembled very much the white hills on the banks of the Jordan, as seen in that valley from the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem. We descended over the eastern side of this Jebel Arrneto, and opened a narrow but exceedingly deep valley, called Wadi Khezheyap. The descent down the perpendicular cliffs of the eastern part of this hill was by winding steps, cut originally in the rock in some places, and formed by stones and

Our way up the side of Lebanon was steep, and in many parts difficult; but we were repaid by the delight-earth in others, over which it was necessary to lead our ful freshness of the air as we mounted, and the grand- horses with great caution. The valley was watered eur of the views on every side. by a fine stream, running through it, and presented on

There is now extant a very large number of short Greek pieces in verse, commonly called epigrams, though not in our sense of the word. Several of these epigrams refer to some figure or figures representing Niobe, or Niobe and her children. One of them, in two lines, runs thus:

"The Gods turned me while living into stone, but out of stone Praxiteles has restored me to life."

This was undoubtedly intended to express the writer's admiration of some statue of Praxiteles.

There is a longer inscription than the foregoing. It is couched in the following terms.

"Daughter of Tantalus, Niobe, hear my words which are the messengers of wo; listen to the piteous tale of our sorrows. Loose the bindings of thy hair, mother of a race of youths who have fallen beneath the deadly arrows of Phoebus. Thy sons no longer live. But what is this? I see something more. The blood of thy daughters too is streaming around. One lies at her mother's knees; another in her lap; a third on the earth; and one clings to the breast: one gazes stupified at the coming blow, and one crouches down to avoid the arrow, while another still lives. But the mother, whose tongue once knew no restraint, stands like a statue, hardened into stone."

It was about noon when we reached a small stream flowing down from the mountain, on the banks of which we halted to refresh ourselves, and soon after reached the village of Sibbeehel above it. We saw here some ancient sepulchres in the rocks, and a new church just finished, the inhabitants being all Christians of the Greek communion. There was an appearance of fresher health and vigour in the men than is seen in the plains, and the women were fairer than their lowland neighbours. The former were dressed in the usual costume of the peasantry of the country; but the latter wore a horn of metal, differing in shape and position from any that I had yet seen. It was placed on the crown of the head pointing rather backward, like a small diadem; and being flat at the top, and larger there than at the bottom, it looked exactly like one of the small boiling kettles of the country reversed. There is a fine spring, in an arched well, just over Sibbeehel, over which is a cross, and at which we drank. The population of the place might amount to 200 persons; and the state of their grounds spoke favourably of their industry.


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