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pictures, statues, and libraries can be stored up for delight of intellectual leisure. He might have devoted his entire wealth to his own indulgence in these things, inviting a select circle of fashionable acquaintance to sit round him and enjoy them; he would have been envied, admired, flattered, and renowned. Whatever the world affords and "men of the world" profess to desire was in the reach of so rich a man ; political power, if he had chosen it, might have been his in America; social power and pride either there or in Europe; -all that could minister to the luxury of sense or fancy, or to the vanity of personal distinction. But Mr. Peabody cherished a singular opinion of his own. He believed, from his experience and observation of the world, that none of these things would make a man happy; though a man who has set his heart upon such things might be very unhappy if they were taken from him. He thought he knew a surer way to obtain happiness by the use of riches; and so, having wherewithal, he resolved teach this lesson, by a few striking instances, both to his own countrymen and to ourselves.

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Some of his first notable acts of pecuniary munificence went to save the reputation of the American people. At the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851 he promptly supplied the sum needed to pay for the arrangements of the United States' contributions. In the following year he joined Mr. Henry Grinnell, the New York shipowner, in fitting out the expedition to the Arctic Seas in search of Sir John Franklin. In the same year, 1852, he bestowed a large donation, since augmented to 100,000l., to found a free library and educational institute at Danvers, his native place. In 1857 Mr. Peabody revisited his native country, after more than twenty years' absence. On this occasion he gave 100,000l. to found in Baltimore a noble institute devoted to science and the arts, in conjunction with a free library. The corner-stone of the building for this institute was laid in 1858, and the building was completed, but its opening was delayed by the outbreak of the Southern rebellion. It was not until after the conclusion of the war that it was finally dedicated to the purposes for which it was founded. The founder afterwards gave a second 100,000l. to this institution.

On March 12, 1862, Mr. Peabody addressed a letter to Mr. C. F. Adams, American Minister; the Right Hon. Lord Stanley; Sir J. E. Tennent; Mr. (now Sir Curtis, Bart.) M. Lampson;

and Mr. J. S. Morgan, his own partner in business, informing them that a sum of 150,000l. stood in the books of Messrs. George Peabody and Co., to be applied by them for the amelioration of the condition of the poor of London.

The gentlemen above named duly entered on their trust, which has been applied in the mode indicated by the donor —namely, in the erection of model dwellings for working men. In January, 1866, Mr. Peabody added another 100,000l. to the fund; and on December 5 last he made a further donation of about fifteen acres of land at Brixton, 5612 shares in the Hudson's Bay Company, and 54051. in cash, making a total of 100,000l., thus raising the amount of his gift to London to 350,000l. This gift is held by the trustees under two deeds, the first having reference to the 150,000l. first given, and the second including the remaining 200,000l., which latter was not to be put in operation until July, 1869, and has, therefore, but now begun to be dealt with. It appears by the statement of the trustees for the year 1868 that they now hold property under the first deed valued at 173,3131., the increase being the produce of rents on the buildings added to the interest on unexpended capital. Four ranges of buildings have been already erected, which house a population of 1971 individuals, composed of the families of working men earning wages on the average under 21s. a week. The trustees have acquired other sites, on which they are about to complete further blocks of houses for similar purposes.

By the last will and testament of Mr. Peabody, opened on the day of his funeral, his executors, Sir Curtis Lampson and Mr. Charles Reed, M.P., were directed to apply a further sum of 150,000l. to the Peabody Fund in London. This makes half a million sterling bestowed by Mr. Peabody for that single object.

This extraordinary beneficence of a private American citizen was acknowledged in Great Britain. The freedom of the city of London was conferred upon him by the Corporation. The Queen, not content with offering him either a baronetcy or the Grand Cross of the Bath, which he respectfully declined, wrote him a grateful letter, and invited him to visit her at Windsor. Mr. Peabody also received from Her Majesty, in March, 1866, just before his departure on a second visit to his native country, the gift of a beautiful miniature portrait of herself, framed in the most costly style, which he deposited in the Peabody Institute at Danvers. The last

token of public honour which was rendered to this good man in London before his death was the uncovering by the Prince of Wales, in July, of Mr. Story's fine bronze statue of himself, behind the Royal Exchange.

Mr. Peabody remained in his native land three years, during which time he largely increased the amount of his donations, and founded more than one or two important institutions. He gave 2,000,000 dols. for the education of blacks and whites in the South; 300,000 dols. for museums of American relics at Yale and Harvard Colleges; 50,000 dols. for a free museum at Salem; 25,000 dols. to Bishop M'Ilvaine, for Kenyon College; and presented a sum of 250,000 dols. to the State of Maryland. He also expended 100,000 dols. on a "Memorial Church" to his mother, and distributed among the members of his family 2,000,000 dols. In recognition of his many large gifts to public institutions in America, he received, in March, 1867, a special vote of thanks from the United States Congress.

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Mr. Peabody's illness began while in America a few months before, but he seemed to have partially recovered. returned to this country in order to consult his medical adviser, Dr. Gull, and then to pass the coming winter in the south of France. His death at the house of his friend Sir Curtis Lampson, in Eaton-square, caused universal regret. Having been born February 18, 1795, he was in the seventy-fifth year of his age.

SAINTE-BEUVE.

Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, an eminent French poet and critic, who died in the beginning of October, was born at Boulogne-sur-Mer on the 23rd of December, 1804. At the age of fourteen he went to Paris, where he completed a course of study in the College Charlemagne. On leaving College he studied medicine and anatomy, and received the appointment of Out-door Surgeon to the Hôpital St. Louis. The incompatibility of his profession with his poetical tendencies had already given rise to feelings of repugnance, which he has described in his preface to the "Poésies de Joseph Delorme," when the appearance of the "Odes and Ballads" of Victor Hugo decided his future course. He resigned his situation as surgeon, and abandoned himself, heart and soul, to poetry and literature. He was presented to Victor Hugo, and allied himself with De Musset and others in the Cénacle. Soon after

appeared his "Historical and Critical Picture of French Poetry and of the French Theatre in the Sixteenth Century" (1828). The "Consolation" appeared shortly after, and met with better success. The Cenacle was brushed away by the Revolution of 1830, and SainteBeuve then joined the staff of the Globe, the avowed organ of the Simonian sect; but he soon grew tired of the association, and transferred his services to the Revue des Deux Mondes, in the pages of which he resumed the series of literary "Portraits" commenced in the Revue de Paris. Not long after he joined the National, then under the able management of Armand Carrel, and contributed some excellent papers to that popular journal. In 1837 he made a visit to Switzerland, and there conceived a "History of Port Royal," which took him eight years to complete. In 1810 he accepted a librarianship in the Mazarin Library; and in 1845 he was admitted into the French Academy to fill up the vacancy caused by the death of Casimir Delavigne. In 1850 he joined the Constitutionnel, and in its columns first appeared that charming budget of literary biography and criticism entitled, "Causeries du Lundi," or "Monday Conversations," an improved continuation of his " Portraits," which form a series of volumes. Soon after the Coup d'Etat in December, 1851, he was attached to the Moniteur, and named Professor of Latin Poetry at the College of France; but the insubordination of the students exhibited at his first lecture obliged him to discontinue the course. In 1857 he was appointed Professor at the Normal School. Emperor signalized the occasion of his departure for Algiers at the end of April, 1865, by a graceful tribute of esteem for a distinguished man of letters in the elevation of M. Sainte-Beuve to the dignity of Senator. A list of his writings, historical, critical, and poetical, would occupy considerable space.

LORD JUSTICE SELWYN.

The

The Right Hon. Sir Charles Jasper Selwyn, P.C., LL.D., Q.C., one of the Judges of the Court of Appeal, who died on the 11th of August, at his seat, Pagoda House, Richmond, was the youngest son of William Selwyn, Esq., Q.C., of Richmond, by his wife, Le titia Frances, daughter of Thomas Kynaston, Esq., of Witham, Essex, and was brother of the Right Rev. George Augustus Selwyn, D.D., Bishop of Lich. field. He was born in 1813, and was

educated at Eton, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A., in 1836, and M.A. in 1839. He was called to the Bar by the Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn in 1840, and attained great eminence as an equity lawyer. He became a Q.C., and a bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 1856. He was M.P. for Cambridge University from 1859 to 1868, and held the office of Commissary of that University since 1855. He was appointed Solicitor-General in August, 1867, on which occasion he was knighted, and was made Judge of the Court of Appeal in Chancery and sworn of the Privy Council in 1868.

Sir Charles

married, in 1856, Hester, daughter of H. G. Ravenshaw, Esq., of Richmond, Surrey, which lady died in 1868. Lord Justice Giffard thus alluded to his deceased colleague on the first day of Michaelmas term:-" It is impossible that this Court can resume its sittings without referring to that which on this day is doubtless present to the minds of all in both branches of the profession-namely, the loss we have all sustained by the death of the late Lord Justice Selwyn. Called to the Bar in 1840 he became a Queen's Counsel in 1856, and afterwards attained the office of Solicitor-General, and was raised to the Bench, having had in these Courts a practice extending over twenty-s -seven years, successful from the commencement of his career, and not, on the whole, inferior to that of any of his contemporaries. It was therefore to be expected that he would administer the law, of which he had so much experience, with ability and with decision, nor was that expectation in any respect disappointed. It was my lot, and, I may add, my happiness, to be associated with the late Lord Justice as his junior on the Bench, and though that was for a few, a very few months only, I may be permitted to say how certain I am that no man could have brought to the discharge of his duties a more complete and ready knowledge, a more manly judgment, a more anxious desire that in every case truth and justice and right should be done. His memory is also dear to all of us as that of a personal friend in all truth and sincerity."

VISCOUNT STRANGFORD.

The Right Hon. Percy Ellen Algernon Frederick William Sydney Smythe,eighth

Viscount Strangford, of Strangford, in the county of Down, in the Peerage of Ireland, and Baron Penshurst, of Penshurst, in the county of Kent, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, a Grandee of Portugal, who died on the 9th of January, at his town house, 58, Great Cumberland-place, Hyde Park, was the youngest son of Percy Clinton Sydney, sixth Viscount Strangford, by his wife, Ellen, youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Burke, the first Baronet, of Marble Hill, in the County of Galway, and widow of Nicholas Brown, Esq., of Mount Hazel, in the county of Galway. He was born November 26, 1825, and was educated at Harrow, and at Merton College, Oxford. He was appointed an Attaché to the Embassy at Constantinople in May, 1845, and ultimately became Oriental Secretary in July, 1857, which post he vacated in October, 1858. He was an eminently accomplished linguist, and was a member of several literary and scientific societies. "The linguistic and philological attainments of Lord Strangford," says the Saturday Review, were something simply amazing. It was wonderful to talk to a man to whom all the languages of Europe and civilized Asia seemed equally familiar. But this was not all. He was a scientific and historical philologer of a high order. He not only knew a vast number of languages, but he knew all about the languages which he knew.

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It is really sad to think how small is likely to be the permanent fruit of powers which were so diligently exercised, and of a mind which was so richly stored. We know of no published writings of Lord Strangford's, save some contributions to various periodicals, and the chapters which he added to Lady Strangford's book on "The Eastern Shores of the Adriatic." Lord Strangford succeeded his brother, George Augustus Frederick Percy Sydney, seventh Viscount Strangford, a promising and distinguished politician, November 23, 1857. He married, February 6, 1862, Emily Anne, youngest daughter of Admiral Sir F. Beaufort, K.C.B., by whom, who survived him, he had no issue. Lord Strangford's father, Percy Clinton Sydney, sixth Viscount, an eminent diplomatist and a graceful poet, the translator of Camöens, the Portuguese bard, was created, January 26, 1825, Baron Penshurst, of Penshurst, in the county of Kent, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

REMARKABLE TRIALS.

I.

SAURIN v. STAR.

THE CONVENT CASE.

THIS was a very extraordinary case, and excited an unusual degree of public interest. The action was brought by a late inmate of a convent at Hull against the Superioress, Mrs. Star, and Mrs. Kennedy, another member of the Order; and the charge was that the defendants wrongfully and maliciously conspired together to compel the plaintiff to cease to be a member, and to procure her expulsion by subjecting her to various indignities, persecutions, and annoyances, by depriving her of the food and clothing to which she was lawfully entitled, by imprisoning her, by preventing her from attending the services of the convent chapel, and by preferring false charges of disobedience, contempt of authority, neglect of duty, and other misconduct. There was a charge for appropriating a watch, wearing apparel, books and papers, and also one for libel, in respect of allegations made against the plaintiff to the Roman Catholic Bishop of Beverley. The damages were laid at 5000l. The defendants pleaded "Not guilty," that the plaintiff was not a member of the Order nor entitled to the privileges and advantages of the institution, and that after the accruing of the matters of complaint and cause of action, the same and all matters of difference were referred to the Bishop, whose award was unfavourable to the plaintiff.

The Solicitor-General (Sir J. Coleridge, Q.C.), Mr. Digby Seymour, Q.C., and Mr. A. Wills were counsel for the plaintiff; Mr. Hawkins, Q.C., Mr. Mellish, Q.C., and Mr. Charles Russell for the defendants.

The case was tried before the Lord Chief Justice of England, and occupied the Queen's Bench for three weeks. A large number of witnesses were called, and the most trifling details of convent discipline gone into with extraordinary minuteness. The Solicitor-General stated the plaintiff's case to the jury, and

Miss Susanna Mary Saurin, the plaintiff, who was attired in deep mourning, was the first witness. She said, I am the daughter of Mr. Michael Saurin, of Garballaugh, near Drogheda. In or about the year 1850 I was desirous of entering a religious house. My parents were opposed at first to my taking such a step, but they ultimately consented. The Convent of Mercy in Baggot-street, Dublin, was selected as the convent which I should enter, I became a postulant

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on the 21st of November, 1850, and remained there as a postulant till the 5th of August, 1851, when I became a novice. On the 3rd of October, 1853, I made my profession as a regular sister of the Order, taking the name, in religion, of Sister Mary Scholastica Joseph. The defendant, Mrs. Star, entered Baggotstreet Convent as a postulant a few months before I did, and also made her act of profession a few months before I made mine. She took the name of Sister Mary Joseph. Mrs. Kennedy, who was professed shortly after me, assumed the name of Sister Mary Magdalene. I became very much attached to both of them, and we were associated together in the work of education. In 1857 Mrs. Star left Baggot street on going to be Superioress of a new foundation at Clifford, near Tadcaster, in Yorkshire. I followed her to Clifford on the 16th or 17th of May, 1858. Mrs. Kennedy was at Clifford when I arrived there. I went over with Mrs. Delany, a choir-sister, Mrs. M'Owne, and a lay-sister. Mrs. M'Owne was called Sister Mary Agnes. My father and mother offered great opposition to my going to Clifford, though they ultimately gave their assent. In the course of 1858 there was a convent founded at Hull, and Mrs. Star went there. I afterwards joined her at Hull, but after remaining there a few months I returned to Clifford. From that time to 1864 I was sometimes at Hull, but more frequently at Clifford. During the greater part of that time Mrs. Star was chiefly at Hull, but sometimes she was at Clifford. She was the Superior of both houses. Kennedy passed most of her time at Hull, being at one period Mother-Assistant. There was a local Superior appointed by Mrs. Star for Clifford. Mrs. Delany filled that office part of the time, and Mrs. M‘Owne the remainder of the time. During the earlier period of my stay at Clifford Mrs. Star and Mrs. Kennedy paid a visit to Ireland. On her return, Mrs. Star told me they had seen my mother. She said she had explained the circumstances in which the convent was placed, and told me my mother was reconciled to my remaining. My mother, she said, expressed a wish that I would write to her once a month. At Clifford I discharged the duties of infirmarian, and was also employed in the housekeeping and in the visitation of the sick. I, with several others, were engaged in the school in the morning and afternoon. These duties necessarily brought me into contact with people in the outer world. At this time I was on the most friendly terms with Mrs. Star and Mrs. M'Owne. Prior to the year 1860 my life was passed very happily. Some time in that year Mrs. Star asked me to tell her what had passed between myself and the priest at confession. I refused to do so, as I doubted it would be contrary to honour and every regulation. I said I did not remember all the priest had said to me. She told me to go away and try to remember and then come back and tell her. I persisted, however, in my refusal to tell her my confession. She asked me several times the same day, and remarked that no member of the community, with the exception of myself, would refuse. I said I thought it would be a breach of honour on my part to repeat any thing that had been said to me in confession. She said I showed great want of confidence in her. Up to then we all had free communication with one another during recreation hours, but after this occurrence Mrs. Star used to go away every day in company with the senior sister, Mrs. M'Owne, while I was left with the novices and postulants. Mrs. Star assigned no reason for wanting to know my confession. Some sisters from Baggot-street afterwards came on a visit to Hull, and on that occasion the Mother-Assistant from Dublin found me alone with the novices and postulants. We had some conversation, and afterwards Mrs. Star told me she had sharply reproved the Mother-Assistant. In

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