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The sacrifices demanded must not be eluded; the longer they are postponed, the more oppressive they will be for the country. Convinced that you share these views, I rely confidently upon your not refusing your assent to the propositions of my Government. A Bill will be laid before you to alter the legal mode of procedure in the assessment of the classified income-tax, in order to secure a more satisfactory working of the existing law. A Bill for the establishment of a new administration of the provincial districts throughout the six eastern provinces will largely affect the entire administration of the country. This new law does not merely alter the regulations which hitherto have existed, and which have frequently been pointed out as requiring improvement-a want acknowledged also by the Government. Together with the modification of the present district assemblies, the Government proposes to establish assemblies for the communal administration of provincial districts, which will not only serve to imbue the inhabitants with greater interest in the affairs of their districts, but these assemblies will also be required to take upon themselves a part of such general business of the country as has hitherto been in the hands of the State. As soon as in those districts of the eastern provinces which are the centres of their communal administration the idea of selfgovernment shall have been realized efficiently, then the extension of the same principle to the rest of the kingdom and its still further development in an ascending scale will follow as a natural consequence. In conformity with the wishes expressed during previous debates, my Government will lay before you the draught of a complete law upon the system of education, and one which shall embrace every grade of instruction. The important deliberations which commenced last session upon the reform of the laws on landed property and the rights accruing therefrom will be resumed. My Government is engaged continually in extending the system of public roads and railways in the interest of the general traffic, and in accordance with the means at its disposal. The Government regrets, however, that it has been compelled to make retrenchments in this branch of the public service in consequence of the insufficiency of the revenue. The Government is also devoting unceasing attention to the development of agriculture. With this object the concentration of small plots of land in those parts of the country where this measure has only recently been introduced or facilitated by law is making visible progress. The unremitting endeavours of my Government for the maintenance and consolidation of peace, for guarding our relations with foreign Powers, from being disturbed in any way, have, by God's help, been crowned with success. I confidently trust that also in future the foreign policy, which will be directed by me in the same spirit, will be followed by the same good result-viz. the establishment of peaceful and friendly relations with all foreign Governments, the development of traffic, and the maintenance of the authority and independence of Germany. Gentlemen, I had lately the gratification of receiving in several

provinces of my Monarchy manifestations of loyalty and confidence which gave me much pleasure. In that spirit which dictated those manifestations I recognize a fresh security for the steady and hopeful prosperity of the Fatherland, and it will be my unceasing endeavour to further the same in all directions to the best of my abilities. Success greatly depends upon your cordial co-operation with my Government, and I rejoice to be able to express my confident hope that also during this session this co-operation for the welfare of the country will not be found wanting."

In reply to a deputation from the Brandenburg Synod at the beginning of December, the King said, "I am much obliged to you for your kind and cordial wishes, and shall be happy to see you finish your work in peace. work in peace. It is very necessary, indeed, that something should be done to quiet the excitement lately prevailing in matters ecclesiastical. The enemies of the Church are numerous in these days. In this I am not alluding to the Roman Catholics, but to those who have ceased to believe. What is to become of us if we have no faith in the Saviour, the Son of God? If He is not the Son of God, His commands, as coming from a man only, must be subject to criticism. What is to become of us in such a case? I can only repeat that I wish to see you finish in peace the work in which you are engaged."

TURKEY AND EGYPT.

Not long ago the Viceroy of Egypt paid a visit to Europe, and was received at the different Courts with something of the respect and state usually reserved for crowned heads. This gave offence to the Sultan and Turkish Government, for in reality the Viceroy is only a satrap of the Ottoman Porte, enjoying the peculiar title of Khedive, which, whatever may be its precise import in Turkey, does not invest its possessor with a royal character. The Sultan was also offended at the invitations issued by the Viceroy to foreign monarchs to be present at the forthcoming opening of the Suez Canal, which his Majesty thought was an infringement on his imperial prerogative. He was also alarmed at other tokens of independence on the part of the Egyptian Viceroy, and in consequence a letter was addressed by the Turkish Minister to the Viceroy, which contained a statement of the grievances alleged against him, and which he answered in a long despatch. As this fully recapitulates all the causes of complaint, and embodies the Viceroy's defence, we give it in extenso.

"Highness, I have had the honour of receiving the letter which, by order of his Imperial Majesty, your Highness has been good enough to address to me, and in which you demand explanations upon the interpretations given to my last journey in Europe, and upon the reports circulated on that occasion. I hasten, therefore, to make known the true facts relating to these questions.

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"From the day on which the administration of this great country was confided to me by his Imperial Majesty, God forbid that I should have ever taken any decision beyond the limits of the rights and duties prescribed by the Imperial firmans. The thought, even, never occurred to me. On the contrary, appreciating the successive favours received from his Majesty, and the high benevolence which he has unceasingly testified towards me, I have subjected all my acts to his will and to his orders, and when his Majesty shall know that all my efforts tend to merit his high approval, I have the firm hope that I shall still retain his confidence and his good will.

"In reference to the troops some time ago despatched to Candia, it was upon my own demand, so that I might have the honour of serving his Majesty and proving my fidelity and devotion to him, that their organization was effected, and their despatch took place in conformity with the orders which he had given.

"The expenses of the Candian expedition, as well as those of the expedition to the Hedjaz, which took place about the same time, have not been paid by the Imperial treasury, as was the case in the Crimean expedition; on the contrary, they have been settled by Egypt, which has felt pride in bearing them exclusively. These expenses, however, having, in consequence of the prolonged stay of the expeditionary corps, reached the figure of about 200,000 purses, I was, with the sole object of taking an account of the sum necessary for the future maintenance of the troops, and to establish an equilibrium in the Budget, compelled to fix a term for the duration of their stay. I submitted the question to the Council at the time of my voyage to Constantinople, and a Ministerial decision fixed the date of their return, which did not, however, take place until fifteen days after the expiration of the time decided upon. From the time of their arrival on the island until their departure, these troops, with their companions in arms, marched wherever they were ordered, displaying not only true courage, but exhibiting perfect obedience; they contributed to preserve the honour of the Imperial arms, and many of the officers as well as the soldiers were either wounded or killed, happy in thus showing their devotion to the Sovereign. This being the case, I do not think I have committed any act or pursued any conduct contrary to the Imperial will, either in the despatch or the withdrawal of the troops; nor, moreover, do I think that any one has seen or heard of any thing singular in the conduct of these troops, whether officers or soldiers, during the expedition.

"As to the privileges accorded about two years since, I solicited them only in view of the general interests of the Imperial territory, confiding in the confidence and entire good will of his Majesty towards me.

"During my journey in Europe I accepted gratefully the invitation to visit them which some of the Sovereigns did me the honour to address to me; and if, when meeting them, I invited

these Sovereigns, or some members of their august families, to assist at the inauguration of the canal, it was only in virtue of the high position which I occupy under the auspices of his Majesty. If these Sovereigns by their reception have shown me any proofs of esteem and consideration, I owe it solely to the honourable position of being dependent upon his Majesty, and it is one of the happy results of the gracious favours with which he has loaded me. I may add that it is publicly known that in these circumstances no act whatever has been committed which could be construed as running counter to the sacred rights of the Sovereign-rights which I place above every thing else, and of which I know how to appreciate the value and importance.

"Your Highness mentions the displeasure which I am supposed to have evinced at the performance of their duty by the ambassadors of the Sublime Porte, and advances the opinion that, desiring to act alone, I avoided them, although in all my relations with them I in no way failed in paying due regard to their rank. As every one knows, I visited each of them. I even invited their Excellencies Djémil Pasha and Daoud Pasha to a family dinner which, during my stay in Paris, my son gave at his own house, thus proving that, so far from desiring to keep them at a distance, I was, on the contrary, glad to find myself with them. I doubt not, therefore, your Highness will be convinced that the accusations made in this respect are simply and purely calumnious.

"As to the mission of Nubar Pasha in Europe, your Highness is aware it is no new step, but that this mission has been already recognized so far back as two or three years ago; further, during each of my sojourns at Constantinople, I have spoken on several occasions upon this question, and even obtained letters of recommendation from the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the ambassadors of the Sublime Porte both at Paris and London, for which I at the time verbally expressed my sincere acknowledgments. Thus the mission of Nubar Pasha has been concealed neither from the Imperial Government nor from its representatives at foreign Courts. The progress, every day more apparent, both of commerce and agriculture, and the increasing efforts made, under the auspices of his Majesty, for their development, attract into Egypt numerous strangers who naturally increase their transactions with the natives, and form every where new commercial relations. This state of things occasions disputes and litigation; and for this reason it was deemed necessary to establish a fixed rule which would tend to protect the rights of all parties and create mutual confidence among them. The mission of Nubar Pasha has, therefore, for its object the modification of the system of jurisdiction so far as it concerns the differences, commercial or otherwise, between foreigners and natives. The adhesion of the Powers to the meeting of a Commission charged to examine this question, and to which they consent to send special representatives, proves that, seeing the development of commerce and agriculture, this reform is comprised within the

limits of those privileges granted by the sovereign condescension. This step is, therefore, unquestionably taken in order to arrive at the means of increasing the prosperity and welfare of the country, under the auspices of his Majesty and in conformity with his generous intentions.

"Your Highness has further done me the honour to say that the enormous expenses which have been incurred in the purchase of firearms, vessels of war, and the like, subject the inhabitants of the country to burdens far beyond their means, and inspire them with discontent against the Administration; that luxury being not the cause, but only the effect, of civilization, to neglect the cause which consists in real reforms, and to begin by the effect, can only have the most dangerous consequences. In pointing out the above, your Highness also invites me to act in accordance with the Imperial firmans, and to concentrate my efforts upon the development of the prosperity of the country and the security of the lives and property of its inhabitants. A fair comparison between the state of prosperity to which the country, under the auspices of his Majesty, has at present arrived, and the deplorable state in which I found it when the reins of government were confided to me, will demonstrate that, comprehending the august rights of his Majesty and appreciating his great benevolence, I have devoted myself completely and unreservedly to the accomplishment of the happiness and prosperity of the country, and the consolidation of the security of property and life.

"The excellent organization and the regularity of the Egyptian Government, which has established and strengthened in this country the fundamental rules on which all these principles rest, and its perseverance in pursuing the path of progress, were indeed sufficient to assure and protect the legitimate rights of all. Nevertheless, within the past three years an Assembly of Delegates has been instituted. Elected by the people, and called upon to meet during two months in each year, their mission is to seek out the true interests of the country, to deliberate upon its general wants, to control the revenues and the expenses of the Government, and, in fine, to watch over the management of the administration. This assembly has the right of examining and fixing the Budget for each year, and, according to circumstances, the increase or diminution of the taxes are submitted to their attention. It is obvious that, under the auspices of his Majesty, and with the general concurrence of the people, this institution assures to them every desirable guarantee.

"As the progress of the sciences and the propagation of enlightenment are the basis of civilization, the schools, which had been, I may say, formerly suppressed, have been, under the auspices of his Majesty, again established; new institutions have been founded, and in such a manner that to-day these establishments, both numerous and various, are completely organized. Further, pupils in great numbers are sent to all parts of Europe in order to perfect themyes in the sciences and letters, the arts and industry, of which

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