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Laudibus, qui res hominum ac deorum,
Qui mare ac terras variisque mundum
Temperat horis ;

Unde nil majus generatur ipso,

Nec viget quidquam simile aut secundum:
Proximos illi tamen occupavit

Pallas honores,

Proeliis audax. Neque te silebo,

Liber, et saevis inimica virgo

Beluis, nec te, metuende certa
Phoebe sagitta.

Dicam et Alciden puerosque Ledae,
Hunc equis, illum superare pugnis
Nobilem; quorum simul alba nautis
Stella refulsit,

Defluit saxis agitatus humor,
Concidunt venti fugiuntque nubes,
Et minax, quod sic voluere, ponto
Unda recumbit.

Romulum post hos prius an quietum

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poets used to begin their productions.-15. Variis-horis. Hora is here, in accordance with its original signification in Greek, a season:' mundum is therefore coelum.-17. Unde; that is, ex quo; namely, Jove. This god, according to the ideas of the ancients, was the creator of all, and was himself optimus maximus, the great. est and best being in the universe; none of his creatures equalling or resembling him.-18. Secundum. The Latins have a well-marked distinction between secundus and proximus. Secundus is one who stands next to another, and but little below him; whereas proximus is one who is next indeed, but, it may be, at a very great distance, longo intervallo.-21. Proeliis audax.-A descriptive epithet of Pallas or Minerva, the goddess of war.-22. Virgo; namely, Diana, the goddess of the chase.-23. Certa-sagitta, 'for thy sure (surely-aimed) arrow.' Apollo invented and used the bow.-25. Alciden, Hercules, grandson of Alcaeus. Pueros Ledae, Castor and Pollux, the former of whom was distinguished as a horseman, both for the management of his steed and the style in which he fought, and the latter as a pugilist. Pugnis, therefore, in line 26, is from pugnus, not pugna. 26. Superare-nobilem, a poetical construction, illustrious because he conquers,' or 'from his victories.'-27. Simul=simul atque, or ac. Alba, partly from its colour, bright,' partly because its appearance is a sign that the violence of the tempest is past. See i. 7, 15: albus Notus. As to the constellation of the Dioscuri, compare i. 3, 2.-29. Defluit-humor, 'the storm-driven water flows down from the rocks;' that is, the water which, in spray, has been thrown far up the cliffs, flows down again into the sea.-31. Quod sic voluere, because they (the sons of Leda) have so willed;' the waves obey their behest. Ponto, the dative, poetically, for in pontum.—— 33. The poet comes now to the heroes of Roman history, among

Pompili regnum memorem, an superbos
Tarquini fasces, dubito, an Catonis
Nobile letum,

Regulum et Scauros animaeque magnae
Prodigum Paullum superante Poeno
Gratus insigni referam Camoena

Fabriciumque.

Hunc et incomptis Curium capillis
Utilem bello tulit et Camillum

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whom he mentions first three of the kings-Romulus, Numa, and Tarquinius Superbus (for of him, not of Tarquinius Priscus, every Roman would think who read of the proud rule,' superbos fasces) - then the most distinguished men in the republican times, without keeping to chronological order, however, in the enumeration. The construction is, dubito utrum Romulum, an Pompilii regnum, an Tarquinii fasces memorem, an Catonis letum et Regulum et Scauros, &c. referam.-35. Catonis nobile letum; namely, of Cato Uticensis, who, in the year 46 B. C., when Julius Caesar had conquered the Pompeian party in Africa, put an end to his own life at Utica, because he was resolved not to live under the dominion of a single man. 37. Regulum. M. Atilius Regulus, who was defeated and taken prisoner by the Carthaginians in the year 250 B. C., is celebrated for the faithfulness with which he kept a promise made to his enemies, and for his devotion to his country's good. Compare iii. 5. Modern critics have cast doubt upon the truth of some passages in his history. Scauros. There was only one distinguished man of this name, M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul in 115 B. C. holding in succession all the great offices of state, he was finally made princeps senatus. He was highly esteemed for his talents and skill as a politician.-38. Paullum; namely, L. Aemilius Paullus, who was consul for the second time in 216 B. c., and one of the Roman commanders in the disastrous battle of Cannae. When he saw that the battle was lost, he refused to flee, but remained and died upon the field where so many others of the noblest Romans had breathed their last. He is here, therefore, called prodigus animae magnae (Gram. § 277, 5, note); Poeno superante, Paullus, who lavished forth, gave up, threw away his great soul, when the Carthaginians were conquering.'-39. Insigni-Camoena, with a praise-giving muse.'-40. Fabricium; namely, C. Fabricius Luscinus, who fought with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, and was equally distinguished by his valour and his integrity.-41. Curium, M.' Curius Dentatus, who subdued the Samnites in 290 B. C. Though he was so poor that he wrought with his hands for his daily bread, yet when the Samnites offered him presents, he, in the true spirit of the primitive Romans, rejected them. The epithet incomptis-capillis, with his uncombed or shaggy hair,' is intended to be laudatory, as indicating that Curius was unacquainted with the arts of the toilet, and heedless of the customs of refined society. -42. Camillum. M. Furius Camillus, the conqueror of the Gauls, who had destroyed Rome. After their defeat he rebuilt the city.

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Saeva paupertas et avitus apto
Cum lare fundus.

Crescit, occulto velut arbor aevo,
Fama Marcelli. Micat inter omnes
Julium sidus, velut inter ignes
Luna minores.

Gentis humanae pater atque custos,
Orte Saturno, tibi cura magni
Caesaris fatis data: tu secundo
Caesare regnes.

Ille seu Parthos Latio imminentes
Egerit justo domitos triumpho,
Sive subjectos Orientis orae
Seras et Indos,

Te minor latum reget aequus orbem ;
Tu gravi curru quaties Olympum,

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·43. Saevadura. Apto cum lare, 'with a suitable house;' that is, a house suitable for a poor man, who himself cultivated the small piece of ground that he inherited from his forefathers. -45. Velut arbor occulto aevo, like a tree whose growth is not observed;' that is, gradually. Marcellus was at this time in his seventeenth year, and had just begun to gain honour by his conduct in official posts. -47. Julium sidus; that is, Augustus: the force of the expression is, Julius (C. Julius Caesar Octavianus Augustus) gleaming like a star.' The connection of the thoughts is, the fame of Marcellus is growing gradually, but that of Augustus is already most brilliant.' Ignes - minores = stellas minores.- 50. Orte Saturno, son of Saturn;' namely, Jupiter. Compare line 13.-51. Tu secundo Caesare regnes, reign with Caesar next below thee.' In prose we should say, 'let Caesar rule next to thee.' -54. Egerit justo triumpho. The triumph over the Parthians, whose territory extended close to the Roman dominions (hence Latio imminentes), is called 'just,' because they had before by stratagem conquered M. Crassus and M. Antonius, and almost annihilated their armies. This was the main cause why Augustus, from the very beginning of his reign, meditated a campaign against the Parthians.-55. Subjectos Orientis orae subjacentes, situated or living under the sky of the East:' ora here is 'tract or quarter of heaven.' About the year 24 B. C., Augustus sent his lieutenantgeneral, Aelius Gallus, on an expedition into Arabia Felix. Its results were very trifling; in fact, it was a failure.-57. Te minor, 'inferior to thee, next to thee, under thee.' Aequus, merciful and just.' 58-60. The idea is this: 'as Augustus rules justly on earth, so do thou reign in heaven by thy thunder, which makes known thy power; and by thy lightning, by which thou punishest such as offend thee.' Properly, the order should have been inverted: as thou rulest in heaven, so may Augustus rule on earth.'-58. Gravi curru. According to the descriptions of the ancient poets, what men call thunder is the noise of the wheels of Jupiter's heavy chariot, as he drives

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Tu parum castis inimica mittes

Fulmina lucis.

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through the heavens.-59. Parum castis inimica-lucis. Lightning often strikes trees; such trees, according to the superstitious notions of the ancients, as have been defiled or profaned by some crime. For this reason, every object struck by lightning had to be purified by numerous religious ceremonies, and the wrath of Jupiter to be appeased by a sacrifice.

CARMEN XIV.

AD REMPUBLICAM.

THIS ode, as Quintilian (Instit. Orat. viii. 6, 44) has observed, is allegorical. Under the figure of a ship, which, after being much shattered in previous storms, puts out into the wild sea again, the poet describes the Roman state, which, after having come through so many civil wars, seemed likely to be again plunged into great confusion, in consequence of the quarrel between Octavianus and Antony in 32 B. C. The idea of representing a state under the figure of a ship is borrowed from the Greek lyrists, who made much use of this metaphor.

O NAVIS, referent in mare te novi

Fluctus? O! quid agis? Fortiter occupa
Portum. Nonne vides, ut

Nudum remigio latus,

Et malus celeri saucius Africo

Antennaeque gemant, ac sine funibus

Vix durare carinae

Possint imperiosius

Aequor? Non tibi sunt integra lintea,

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1. Referent, shall new billows carry thee back?'-3. Nonne vides ut-gemant, 'dost thou not perceive how they groan ?'—4. Nudum remigio latus. The author is thinking of a trireme, a ship of war; the main strength of which lay in its oars, just as now steam-vessels depend for motion principally on their engines. In a concussion with an enemy's ship, the great matter was to strip off the opponent's oars, which was effected by drawing in one's own oars, and passing close to his side before he had time to take in his. For this reason, the state, shattered by intestine commotions, is here compared to a ship deprived of its oars.-5. Saucius; properly, 'wound. ed;' here, loosened, made to totter.' The mast (mālus) is treated as if it were a soldier.-6. Sine funibus, without cables;' that is, 'without anchors.' If thou dost not ride at anchor, and remain in harbour, thou canst not weather the storm. Notice the plural cari

Non di, quos iterum pressa voces malo.
Quamvis, Pontica pinus,

Silvae filia nobilis,

Jactes et genus et nomen, inutile;
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus
Fidit. Tu nisi ventis

Debes ludibrium, cave.

Nuper sollicitum quae mihi taedium,
Nunc desiderium curaque non levis,
Interfusa nitentes

Vites aequora Cycladas.

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nae, used poetically for the whole ship.-10. Non di. An allusion to Augustus. He was the deus who had saved the vessel of the state after the death of Caesar, when it seemed on the eve of destruction. But now, if he died, who was to rescue the ship, since he would leave no son behind him?-11. Pontica pinus. Pontus, formerly an independent kingdom, was celebrated for its forests, which furnished the best wood for ship-building: hence, in the next line, silva-nobilis. Pontica pinus is therefore a ship built of the pine-wood of Pontus.'-13. Genus et nomen. The author attributes to the ship the same origin and fame which the city of Rome had. Thou boastest of thy origin, since Mars and Romulus were thy builders, and of the fame (nomen) which thou hast acquired; but these bring thee no help now (inutile est.)—14. Pictis―puppibus. The Romans used to paint their ships (for puppis stands as pars pro toto, for the whole ship) with stripes of different colours. By timidus navita, Horace means himself. He had been 'out,' as the English phrase goes, in the civil war after Caesar's death, and knew and feared the troubled sea of revolution.-15. Nisi debes ludibrium ventis, 'unless thou owest sport to the winds;' that is, 'unless, by the decree of fate, thou art doomed (bound) to make sport for the winds by becoming a wreck.'-17. Nuper, 'lately;' namely, at the time of the battle of Philippi, when the state-that is, the consideration of state affairs, politics-caused me much anxiety and disquietude, but at the same time also disgust and weariness. Supply, as the verb to line 17, fuisti, and to line 18, es.-20. Vites aequora interfusa (inter) nitentes Cycladas, 'avoid the seas which roll between the glittering Cyclades; that is, generally, seas full of rocks, on which thou mayest be wrecked.

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