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Digne scripserit, aut pulvere Troico
Nigrum Merionen, aut ope Palladis
Tydiden superis parem?

Nos convivia, nos proelia virginum
Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium
Cantamus, vacui sive quid urimur,
Non praeter solitum leves.

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clad,' for adamas is anything impenetrable.-15. Meriones was one of the heroes of the Trojan war. He was the charioteer of Idomeneus of Crete.-16. Tydiden, the son of Tydeus;' namely, Diomedes, who also, like Meriones, fought against Troy, and, by the help of Athena, wounded Ares and Aphrodite in battle.-18. Sect is unguibus: neatly-cut nails were a sign of breeding and elegance, for the Romans devoted particular attention to this department of personal adornment.-19. Vacui sive quid urimur; that is, sive non amamus sive amamus. The import of the sentence is this: my poetry is indeed of a light, but yet not of a licentious nature.

CARMEN VII.

AD L. MUNATIUM PLANCUM CONSULAREM.

L. MUNATIUS PLANCUS, consul in 42 B. C., was one of the most distinguished statesmen of his time, but unstable in his political opinions; for he was in succession a follower of the dictator Caesar, an adherent of the senatorial party, and a partisan of Antony, whom he deserted shortly before the battle of Actium to join Octavianus. His political talents, however, and his activity, rendered his services necessary even to those who did not and could trust him. Horace exhorts him to seek recreation from the cares and annoyances of political life in the study and enjoyment of nature, and in conviviality. This ode was written shortly after the battle of Actium, when Plancus already belonged to the party of Octavianus.

LAUDABUNT alii claram Rhodon, aut Mitylenen,
Aut Epheson, bimarisve Corinthi

1. Alii corresponds to sunt quibus in line 5, and to plurimus =plu rimi in line 8. Rhodes, a city on the island of that name, celebrated for its commerce and for the cultivation of the arts and sciences: Mitylene, a town on the island of Lesbos, much praised for the beauty of its situation and the tasteful architecture of its houses: the other places mentioned - Ephesus, Corinth, Thebes, Delphi, and the Vale of Tempee-were also admired for their natural beauties; for the Roman poets looked for fine scenes as subjects of description in their works, in Greece and Greek Asia Minor, just as we do in Italy; and naturally, too, their refinement and poetry being of Greek origin, as ours are of classical, particularly Roman. 2. Bimarisve Corinthi moenia. Corinth is called 'two

Moenia, vel Baccho Thebas vel Apolline Delphos
Insignes, aut Thessala Tempe;

Sunt quibus unum opus est intactae Palladis urbem 5
Carmine perpetuo celebrare et

Undique decerptam fronti praeponere olivam;
Plurimus in Junonis honorem

Aptum dicet equis Argos ditesque Mycenas.
Me neque tam patiens Lacedaemon

Nec tam Larissae percussit campus opimae,
Quam domus Albuneae resonantis

Et praeceps Anic ac Tiburni lucus et uda
Mobilibus pomaria rivis.

Albus ut obscuro deterget nubila coelo
Saepe Notus, neque parturit imbres

Perpetuos, sic lu sapiens finire memento

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sea'd,' because, being situated on the isthmus, it is near both the Corinthian and Saronic gulfs. The citadel, called Acrocorinthus, was particularly admired for its strength (hence moenia.) The city had been rebuilt very shortly before this time, according to a plan of Caesar.-5. Intactae, virgin,' the ordinary epithet of Athena, the protecting divinity of Athens.-6. Carmine perpetuo, in one continuous poem;' that is, a poem which celebrates the heroic deeds of the Athenians from the origin of the city in the mythical times downwards. 7. Olivam, properly, the olive-tree and its fruit; afterwards, a crown made of olive-twigs; and here, metaphorically, poems which relate the traditions and history of Athens, and which bring their authors crowns of honour. Consequently, to place a crown of olive-twigs, plucked from all quarters, upon their brow,' means to gain glory and fame by poems relating the history of Athens, and adorned with illustrative imagery drawn from all sources.'-9. Argos, situated in a plain of Peloponnesus: its breed of horses, and the temple of Juno ('Hpatov) in its neighbourhood, are celebrated by Homer. Mycenae, the royal seat of the Pelopidae, a very ancient town, which did not exist in historic times, is also praised by him for its riches.-10. Patiens Lacedaemon: the principal virtue of the Spartans was patientia, the patient endurance of bodily pains.-11. Larissae opimae: Larissa, a town in Thessaly, famed for the fertility of the country around it. Percussit, has filled with love.'-12. Domus Albuneae, the grotto of Albunea,' the nymph of a small stream near Tibur (the modern Tivoli), a town on the Anio (now Teverone.) The Anio, which was far-famed for its falls, and is hence called in the next line praeceps, winds round the greater part of Tibur, and numerous canals go off from it into the orchards of the inhabitants (hence, in line 14, pomaria uda rivis mobilibus.) Tiburnus, the son or grandson of Amphiaraus, was one of the heroes whom tradition made the founders of Tibur. A grove near the city was sacred to him.-15. Transition to the proper subject of the ode. The connection of the thoughts is as follows:- I, as a poet, find my chief gratification in contemplating the beautiful scenery in the neighbourhood of Tibur, and in occasionally composing light, easy poems, refraining from great efforts, which would

Tristitiam vitaeque labores

Molli, Plance, mero, seu te fulgentia signis

Castra tenent seu densa tenebit

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque Quum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo

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'Quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente. Ibimus, o socii comitesque.

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Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro;
Certus enim promisit Apollo,

Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram.

O fortes pejoraque passi

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probably bring me nothing but annoyance and vexation. You, a statesman, must enter more seriously into the affairs of life than I do; still you need the relaxation of convivial pleasures; and that these are not inconsistent with activity in business, I can show by the case of Teucer' (line 21, onwards.) The south wind is called albus, because it sometimes makes the sky bright and clear, though commonly bringing rain and storms. For deterget we might also have had detergit. See Zumpt, § 177.-18. Tristitiam, 'the stern seriousness of life,' opposed to cheerfulness and mirth. Hence also in the next line, molli mero, wine which softens the heart.' -20. Castra fulgentia signis. In Roman camps the standards of the legions and cohorts, which consisted of silver eagles, and even the staves of which were richly adorned with metal, were stuck into the ground in front of the general's tent.-21. Tiburis tui, equivalent to Tiburtini tui, the name of the town being put for the villa near it. Teucer: Telamon, king of Salamis, when he sent away his two sons, Ajax and Teucer, to the Trojan war, had commanded them to return together, because he would not receive the one with. out the other. Accordingly, when Ajax killed himself from vexation at being conquered by Ulysses in the contest for the arms of Achilles, Teucer did not dare to return home, but sailed to Cyprus, and there founded another Salamis.-22. Lyaeo, a name of Bacchus, very appropriate here, for it means the deliverer from care :' tempora uda Lyaeo, his temples moist with wine.'-25. Quocunque, divided as in i. 6, 3. Fortuna melior parente, Fortune, kinder than my father,' who exiles me, - -27. Auspice Teucro. Horace here puts into the mouth of the Greek hero an expression derived from a Roman usage. A Roman commander-in-chief had the auspicia; that is, the right of consulting the gods by the flight of birds, for the purpose of ascertaining whether any proposed course of proceeding met with their approval. He was therefore not merely the dux, but also the auspex of his army. -28. Certus Apollo. Apollo was the god of prophecy; and consequently he and his oracles were infallible, truth-telling,'-29. Ambiguam, 'a second,' so that it would be doubtful which was Salamis, properly so called, or so that when any one spoke of Salamis merely, without any distinctive epithet, his hearers would be uncertain

Mecum saepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas;
Cras ingens iterabimus aequor.?

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to which he alluded.-32. Iterabimus = iterum navigabimus or iterum peragrabimus.

CARMEN VIII.

AD LYDIAM.

DESCRIPTION of a youth called Sybaris, who, from love to Lydia, has become effeminate, and has given up all serious and manly employments.

LYDIA, dic, per omnes

Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando

Perdere; cur apricum

Oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis?
Cur neque militaris

Inter aequales equitat, Gallica nec lupatis
Temperat ora frenis?

Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere? Cur olivum

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3. Apricum campum, 'the sunny plain;' namely, the Campus Martius, where the young men used to amuse and train themselves by warlike exercises of all kinds-riding, spear-throwing, swimming Miliin the Tiber, which flowed past the field, and the like.-4. Patiens pulveris atque solis, he who could bear both dust and sun.' taris, in the next line, he who has come to an age when he should serve as a soldier, and who has both strength and courage enough 6. Gallica ora, 'the mouths of Gallic horses.' The to be one.' horses of Gaul were highly esteemed as war steeds, and were brought into Italy in great numbers. They were governed (tempe rare) by frena lupata; sometimes also called simply lupus, a bridle, the bit of which was jagged, so as to make it more severe.-8. Fla vum Tiberim. Bathing in the river was always considered as a means of strengthening the constitution, and was especially recommended in the time of the emperors, when the immoderate use of hot baths was doing much to weaken the bodily vigour and mental energy of the Romans. As to the epithet flavus, see i. 2, 13. Cur olivum. The poet comes now to the exercises of the palaestra, which were of Greek origin, but were at this time practised with great spirit by the Roman youth. They consisted, as is here mentioned, in wrestling, and throwing the spear and the discus-a plate of metal very like our modern quoit.' Before wrestling, the intending combatants used to rub their bodies over with oil, in order to render themselves more supple, and thus able more easily to elude the grasp of their opponents. Here, therefore, olivum vitare means 'to

Sanguine viperino

Cautius vitat, neque jam livida gestat armis
Brachia, saepe disco,

Saepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expedito?

Quid latet, ut marinae

Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Trojae
Funera, ne virilis

Cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas?

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shun a wrestling bout.'-9. Sanguine viperino, for quam sanguinem viperinum. The blood of snakes was believed to be a most deadly poison.-10. Gestat brachia livida armis. Gestat, used poetically for habet: arma here are the discus and jaculum mentioned immediately afterwards. -12. Trans finem expedito, thrown quite beyond the point attained by any of the other players.' Expedito belongs to disco as well as to jaculo. Nobilis,well-known, famed,' is to be understood, like patiens in line 4, as who once was, and still might be.'-14. Filium Thetidis marinae, the son of the sea-goddess Thetis: namely, Achilles. When the Trojan war broke out, his mother, knowing that he would lose his life in it, took him to Lycomedes, king of Scyros, where, disguised in female attire, he was brought up with the king's daughters. Ulysses discovered him by a stratagem, and induced him to join the Grecian host. Sub funera. As to sub, used of time, see Žumpt, § 319.-16. Lycias catervas. Lycians, under the command of Glaucus and Sarpedon, were allics of the Trojans. Lycias, therefore, is here used as = Trojanas.

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CARMEN IX.

AD THALIARCHUM.

AN exhortation to enjoy life so long as youth and circumstances permit, leaving the management of the world to the gods. Thaliarchus, the name given by Horace to the friend to whom this ode is addressed, is fictitious, and means according to its Greek derivation, magister convivii. The poem is in imitation of an ode by the Greek lyrist Alcaeus, part of which is extant. Horace, however, makes his scene the country near Rome. Mount Soracte, now called Monte Tresto or Monte di S. Silvestro, was distinctly visible from the city, being situated about twenty-four Roman miles from it, in the district of the ancient city of Falerii.

VIDES ut alta stet nive candidum
Soracte, nec jam sustineant onus

1. Vides, ut, Dost thou see how?' &c. little different from vides

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