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CARMEN II.

AD CAESAREM.

A LAUDATORY ode, addressed to the Emperor Octavianus Caesar, who, when he returned to Rome (29 B. c.) after his victory over Antony and Cleopatra, began to regulate the internal affairs of the state, and particularly to improve the moral character of the people by enacting strict laws. This poem was written in the year 28 B. C., when Caesar received the title of Princeps Senatus (line 50.)

JAM satis terris nivis atque dirae
Grandinis misit pater et rubenti
Dextera sacras jaculatus arces
Terruit urbem,

Terruit gentes, grave ne rediret

Saeculum Pyrrhae nova monstra questae,
Omne cum Proteus pecus egit altos

Visere montes,

Piscium et summa genus haesit ulmo,
Nota quae sedes fuerat columbi

Et superjecto pavidae natarunt

Aequore damae.

Vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis
Litore Etrusco violenter undis

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1. The poet describes the prodigies which were seen after the murder of Julius Caesar, and were supposed to have been sent by the gods as a punishment for that crime. These prodigies were chiefly great tempests, during which various places were struck by lightning, and inundations of the Tiber, which are here represented as the commencement of a second Deucalionic flood. 2. Pater; namely, deorum et hominum, Jupiter: rubens dextera, 'his red right hand; that is, his hand armed with lightning. -3. Sacras arces, the Capitol, where the temples of the three presiding divinities of the state, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, were. 4. Terruit, both generally has terrified,' and especially has alarmed them, lest (ne)' &c.-6. Saeculum Pyrrhae, the time of the deluge, when Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha alone were saved: nova monstra questae, who saw with grief wonders unknown before;' namely, a change in the face of the whole world.-7. Proteus, a sea-god, who acted as Neptune's cow-herd: egit visere, a Greek construction for egit ut viserent. -9. Construe thus: et genus piscium haesit summa ulmo, in the top of the elm.'-11. Superjecto, poured over the earth.' -13. Flavus, because it carries much sand along with it, and for that reason has a yellowish appearance. - 14. Litus Etruscum, the north.

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regis
Templaque Vestae;

Iliae dum se nimium querenti
Jactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra
Labitur ripa Jove non probante u-
xorius amnis.

Audiet cives acuisse ferrum,
Quo graves Persae melius perirent,
Audiet pugnas vitio parentum
Rara juventus.

Quem vocet divum populus ruentis
Imperi rebus? prece qua fatigent
Virgines sanctae minus audientem
Carmina Vestam?

Cui dabit partes scelus expiandi
Jupiter? tandem venias, precamur,
Nube candentes humeros amictus,
Augur Apollo;

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens,
Quam Jocus circum volat et Cupido;
Sive neglectum genus et nepotes
Respicis auctor,

Heu nimis longo satiate ludo,

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The waves,

ern bank of the Tiber, on which the Etruscans dwelt. driven back with violence from it, inundated the city, most of which lay on the south side.-15 Dejectum, the supine ut dejiceret: monumenta regis, the so-called Regia, said to have been built by Numa, close to which stood the temple of Vesta, where the Palladium of Rome was kept.-17. Ilia, or Rea Silvia, the wife of Tiber. She complains too much (for nimium querenti go together) of Caesar's murder, and wishes for the utter destruction of the wicked city, whereas Jupiter wants merely to punish it: therefore afterwards Jove non probante. -18. Jactat se ultorem, acts as the avenger of Ilia;' for which reason, in line 19, he is called uxorius, 'governed by the will of his wife.'- 23. Vitio parentum are to be connected with rara the youths are not numerous, because their fathers fought with each other.-25. Vocet, can the people call to for help.' -26. Prece, the ablative singular, confined almost entirely to poetry. Gram. 80, 4.-27. Virgines sanctae, the Vestal virgins. Vesta does not listen to their songs (carmina minus audit), because she is angry with the Romans -29. Partes, office, duty.'-31. Candentes humeros, a Greek accusative; comp. Gram. § 259.-32. Augur, be cause he is the god of oracles and prophecy.-33. Erycina; that is, Venus: so called from the celebrated temple which she had on Mount Eryx, near Lilybaeum in Sicily. The companions of Venus were Jocus and Amor, or Cupido, who were usually represented as boys with wings.-36. Auctor; that is, Mars, the father of Romulus and Remus, and the god who delighted in the game (ludus) of war.

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Q. HORATII FLACCI CARMINA.

LIBER PRIMUS.

CARMEN I.

AD MAECENATEM.

THIS poem is a dedication of the first three books of Odes, which Horace published together, to his patron Maecenas. It serves at the same time, however, as an introduction to the collected lyrical productions of Horace. The author says (1-28) that the pursuits of men are very various: one strives after honour, another after extensive possessions, another after a peaceful life on his he. reditary estate; others after commercial gain, after a life of merriment and debauchery, after the exciting employments of war, or after the pleasures of the chase. He, on the other hand (29-36), busies himself with the cultivation of lyric poetry; and will feel happy if, in the judgment of Maecenas, he is worthy to be considered as a lyric poet.

MAECENAS atavis edite regibus,

O et praesidium et dulce decus meum:
Suat quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum
Collegisse juvat, metaque fervidis

1. C. Cilnius Maecenas was a member of the Cilnian gens, which belonged to the ruling clans in Arretium, an ancient city of Etruria, and was said to have given several kings and military leaders to that country.-3. Sunt quos-juvat. Gram. § 360, 4, and as to the perfect collegisse, Gram. 371, note 2. The allusion is to the Olympic Games, of which chariot-racing (curriculo=curru) constituted a principal part. The great difficulty in this exercise was to turn round the meta (the pillar which marked the end of the course) so closely as not to lose any ground, and at the same time so dexterously as to avoid grazing the post and being overturned. The victor received as his reward a garland made of the leaves of the wild olive

Quem juvat clamor galeaeque leves,
Acer et Mauri peditis cruentum
Vultus in hostem.

Sive mutata juvenem figura
Ales in terris imitaris, almae
Filius Maiae, patiens vocari
Caesaris ultor,

Serus in coelum redeas, diuque

Laetus intersis populo Quirini,
Neve te nostris vitiis iniquum

Ocior aura

Tollat. Hic magnos potius triumphos,
Hic ames dici Pater atque Princeps,
Neu sinas Medos equitare inultos,

Te duce, Caesar.

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45

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-38. Leves, smooth, polished, burnished.'-39. Construe thus: et vultus Mauri peditis acer in cruentum hostem. The look of the Mauritanian soldier is fierce at all times, but particularly when he is glancing at an enemy whom he has wounded or slain.-41. The author now comes to the main point of his poem; namely, the statement that Octavianus Caesar had been sent by the gods to save the Romans. He ventures on the fancy that Mercury, the son of the goddess Maia, had assumed the form of Octavian, and had condescended (therefore, in line 43, patiens) to become the avenger of Caesar's murder. Sive-juvenem in terris imitaris, or if thou hast assumed, and art bearing on earth the form of young Octavian,' who was then in his thirty-fifth year.-43. Filius, nominative for vocative. See Gram. 311, note.-45. Serus, a poetical construction for sero. -47. Nostris vitiis iniquum, hostile, opposed to our faults.'-49. Hic potius, here on earth rather than in heaven, where, as Mercury, thou usually dwellest.' The accusative triumphos depends upon ames.-50. Pater, scil. patriae, a title which was afterwards formally conferred on Octavianus by a decree of the senate. -51. Medos; that is, the Parthians. Octavianus, like his grand-uncle Julius, intended to commence a war against this people, after settling the internal affairs of the state. His motive was a desire to avenge on the Parthians the defeats which M. Crassus and Antony the triumvir had sustained at their hands, and particularly to deliver the Roman captives, of whom they had still a very great number, and to recover the standards.

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