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Ter die claro totiesque grata

Nocte frequentes.

Vosque veraces cecinisse, Parcae,

Quod semel dictum est stabilisque rerum
Terminus servat, bona jam peractis
Jungite fata.

Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus

Spicea donet Cererem corona;
Nutriant fetus et aquae salubres
Et Jovis aurae.

Condito mitis placidusque telo

Supplices audi pueros, Apollo;
Siderum regina bicornis audi

Luna puellas.

Litus Etruscum teriuere turmae,

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Roma si vestrum est opus, Iliaeque

Jussa pars mutare lares et urbem

Sospite cursu,


Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam

Castus Aeneas patriae superstes

Liberum munivit iter daturus

Plura relictis :

Di, probos mores docili juventae,

Di, senectuti placidae quietem,

Romulae genti date remque prolemque

Et decus omne;


ten times eleven-that is, 110-years, which, as is mentioned in the introduction to the poem, Augustus adopted in fixing the time of his games.-23. Grata, because it was illumined with torches and altar-fires, and spent merrily in all manner of festivity.-24. Frequentes, because numerously attended.-25. 'And do you, O Parcae, truthful in singing (that is, who sing truthfully; compare line 13) that which is said by you once for all (semel), and which then even the end of the world keeps, observes.'-27. Bona-fata. The sense is this: grant that the future may be as fortunate for the Roman state as the ages past have been.-29. The idea is, that Tellus, joy. ous and grateful on account of her fertility, should bring to Ceres, the goddess of the fruits of the earth, a wreath of ears of corn, such as the country people used to give to this deity at the harvest feast. -31: Aquae, rain.'-32. Aurae, 'breezes' or 'weather' generally, Jove being the god of the weather. 33. Telo; namely, the bow. See line 61.35. Bicornis, for Diana, as goddess of the moon, was represented with a crescent on her head.-37. Si does not imply doubt here, but means 'as truly as, since assuredly.' As to Iliae turmae, compare Carm. iv. 15, 31. 39. Jussa pars, apposition to Iliae turmae, and quae pars gentis Trojanae jussa est. -41. Sine fraude, without injury.'-42. Castus. Pius is the attribute which Virgil commonly gives to Aeneas.-44. Plura relictis = plura quam reliquerant, or quam relicta erant. 47. Romulae genti. Compare

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Carm. iv. 5, 1, and Gram. § 208, 2, note. The poet, in the two preceding lines, has been praying for the classes of young and old, and for the blessings most required by each; here he prays for the Roman people collectively, the whole body. Rem is 'property' rem familiarem.-49. Bobus albis. These were the sacrifices to Apollo and Diana; they had been directed by the Sibylline books. -51. Bellante prior; that is, superior iis qui bellum gerunt. The sense of the passage is the same which Virgil (Aen. vi. 854) expresses as the guiding principle or motto of the Romans, parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos. -- 53. Manus potentes Albanasque secures; that is, manus potentes et secures Albanorum. Secures means the power of the magistrates, as symbolised by the axes in the fasces. The Romans are called Albans, as being descended from the inhabitants of Alba Longa; in the same way the Parthians are called Medes. See Carm. iii. 8, 19.. 55. As to the Scythians and Indians, compare Carm. iv. 14, 42. 60. Copia, the goddess of plenty, used to be represented with a horn, and her figure occurs particularly often on the coins which were struck in the reign of Augustus. She is called beata, because she confers happiness, and consequently must be herself happy.-63. Apollo was god of the healing art.--65. Si is to be understood as in line 37. Horace mentions the Palatine, because on it Augustus had built a magnificent temple to Apollo, and the god would, from gratitude, protect Rome. Aequus, gracious, graciously.' -66. Here the apodosis begins. Rem Romanam = Romanos, imperium Romanum.-67. Alterum in lustrum. Lustrum seems to denote here the space of time between each celebration of the secular games and the next. Hence the wish of the poet is, that Apollo will preserve the empire from one century to another, and that each may be better than that which

Quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque,
Quindecim Diana preces virorum

Curet et votis puerorum amicas

Applicet aures.

Haec Jovem sentire deosque cunctos,
Spem bonam certamque, domum reporto,
Doctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae
Dicere laudes.



preceded it (melius in aevum.)—69. As Apolló is appealed to, by his temple on the Palatine, so Diana is invoked by her ancient temple on the Aventine, the original seat of the Roman plebs, and by that on Mount Algidus, in the neighbourhood of Rome. See Carm. i. 21, 6.-70. Quindecim virorum. The quindecimviri sacris faciundis were a priestly college of fifteen members, whose chief duty was to preserve, consult, and explain the Sibylline books. Now as the secular games were celebrated by direction of these sacred books, the quindecimviri presided at them. 73. The choir declare their conviction that the gods will graciously hear their prayers. As the accusative with the infinitive, Jovem sentire, supplies the place of a substantive, spem bonam certamque in the next line is in apposition to it.-75. Doctus, in its real verbal sense, taught,' partly by the poet, and partly by those who had instructed the chorus in chanting the hymn.

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THE poet expresses his determination to accompany Maecenas to the Actian war (31 B. C.) We know from history that Maecenas had no personal share in this war, but, by the special desire of Augustus, remained at Rome in charge of Italy. At the time, however, when Horace wrote the epode, this arrangement could not have been made.

IBIS Liburnis inter alta navium,
Amice, propugnacula,

Paratus omne Caesaris periculum

Subire, Maecenas, tuo.

Quid nos? Quibus te vita si superstite

Jucunda, si contra, gravis.

Utrumni jussi persequemur otium,

Non dulce, ni tecum simul,

An hunc laborem mente laturi, decet
Qua ferre non molles viros?

Feremus, et te vel per Alpium juga

Inhospitalem et Caucasum,

Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum
Forti sequemur pectore.



1. Ibis Liburnis inter alta propugnacula navium, thou wilt go in Liburnian barks among the lofty bulwarks of the (hostile) ships of war.' The fleet of Octavianus consisted chiefly of Liburnae or Liburnicae, light vessels of war, such as were originally used by the Liburnians, an Illyrian tribe on the east coast of the Adriatic. On the other hand, the ships of Antony had lofty sides, and several decks, and were formidable in appearance, but very unwieldy.-5. Construe thus: quibus vita jucunda, si te superstite, scil. erit.-9. Laturi, scil. sumus.-11. Feremus, etc. This is the answer to the previous question, and contains the main idea of the poem: yes, we will bear the danger

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Roges tuum labore quid juvem meo,
Imbellis ac firmus parum :
Comes minore sum futurus in metu,
Qui major absentes habet;

Ut assidens implumibus pullis avis
Serpentium allapsus timet,
Magis relictis, non uti sit, auxili
Latura plus praesentibus.

Libenter hoc et omne militabitur
Bellum in tuae spem gratiae,

Non ut juvencis illigata pluribus

Aratra nitantur mea,

Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidum
Lucana mutet pascuis,

Neque ut superni villa candens Tusculi
Circaea tangat moenia.

Satis superque me benignitas tua

Ditavit haud paravero

Quod aut avarus ut Chremes terra premam,
Discinctus aut perdam nepos.

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mutually-15. Roges, thou mayst perhaps ask.' Si me roges might also have been used.-21. Magis relictis, 'but (fears) still more, when she has left her young ones alone.'—25. Non-mea, 'not that my ploughs, harnessed to more bullocks, may labour;' that is, may cut up the heavy soil.-27. Pecusve-pascuis, or that my cattle, before the heat of summer, may change (that is, gain in exchange) Lucanian pastures for those of Calabria.' Lucania is a mountainous district, Calabria and the neighbouring region of Apulia, a dry plain. Mutare aliquid means often to obtain a thing, by giving something in exchange for it.' Consequently the force of the clause is this, or that I may obtain from thee pasturegrounds in Lucania, to which my flocks may resort in the summer.' The sense of the whole passage is this: I do not wish by your friendship to acquire extensive lands, or to become rich in cattle, or to obtain a magnificent villa. He mentions as such a villa one extending up the hill of Tusculum, even to the walls of the city. Tusculum was situated on the top of the hill at whose foot now lies the town of Frascati. Its walls are called Circaea (line 30), because, according to tradition, Telegonus, son of Ulysses and Circe, founded the city. Compare Carm. iii. 29, 8.-33. Chremes, the usual name of an avaricious old man in the Greek comedies.

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