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Quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque,
Quindecim Diana preces virorum

Curet et votis puerorum amicas

Applicet aures.

Haec Jovem sentire deosque cunctos,

Spem bonam certamque, domum reporto,
Doctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae

Dicere laudes.



preceded it (melius in aevum.)—69. As Apollo is appealed to by his temple on the Palatine, so Diana is invoked by her ancient temple on the Aventine, the original seat of the Roman plebs, and by that on Mount Algidus, in the neighbourhood of Rome. See Carm. i. 21, 6.-70. Quindecim virorum. The quindecimviri sacris faciundis were a priestly college of fifteen members, whose chief duty was to preserve, consult, and explain the Sibylline books. Now as the secular games were celebrated by direction of these sacred books, the quindecimviri presided at them.- 73. The choir declare their conviction that the gods will graciously hear their prayers. As the accusative with the infinitive, Jovem sentire, supplies the place of a substantive, spem bonam certamque in the next line is in apposition to it.-75. Doctus, in its real verbal sense, taught,' partly by the poet, and partly by those who had instructed the chorus in chanting the hymn.





THE poet expresses his determination to accompany Maecenas to the Actian war (31 B. C.) We know from history that Maecenas had no personal share in this war, but, by the special desire of Augustus, remained at Rome in charge of Italy. At the time, however, when Horace wrote the epode, this arrangement could not have been made.

IBIS Liburnis inter alta navium,
Amice, propugnacula,

Paratus omne Caesaris periculum
Subire, Maecenas, tuo.

Quid nos? Quibus te vita si superstite

Jucunda, si contra, gravis.

Utrumni jussi persequemur otium,
Non dulce, ni tecum simul,

An hunc laborem mente laturi, decet
Qua ferre non molles viros?

Feremus, et te vel per Alpium juga
Inhospitalem et Caucasum,

Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum
Forti sequemur pectore.



1. Ibis Liburnis inter alta propugnacula navium, thou wilt go in Liburnian barks among the lofty bulwarks of the (hostile) ships of war.' The fleet of Octavianus consisted chiefly of Liburnae or Liburnicae, light vessels of war, such as were originally used by the Liburnians, an Illyrian tribe on the east coast of the Adriatic. On the other hand, the ships of Antony had lofty sides, and several decks, and were formidable in appearance, but very unwieldy. -5. Construe thus: quibus vita jucunda, -11. Feremus, si te superstite, scil. erit.-9. Laturi, scil. sumus. — etc. This is the answer to the previous question, and contains the main idea of the poem: 'yes, we will bear the danger


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Neque ut superni villa candens Tusculi
Circaea tangat moenia.


Satis superque me benignitas tua

Ditavit haud paravero

Quod aut avarus ut Chremes terra premam,
Discinctus aut perdam nepos.

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mutually-15. Roges, thou mayst perhaps ask. Si me roges might also have been used.-21. Magis relictis, but (fears) still more, when she has left her young ones alone.'-25. Non-mea, not that my ploughs, harnessed to more bullocks, may labour;' that is, may cut up the heavy soil.-27. Pecusve-pascuis, or that my cattle, before the heat of summer, may change (that is, gain in exchange) Lucanian pastures for those of Calabria.' Lucania is a mountainous district, Calabria and the neighbouring region of Apulia, a dry plain. Mutare aliquid means often to obtain a thing, by giving something in exchange for it.' Consequently the force of the clause is this, or that I may obtain from thee pasturegrounds in Lucania, to which my flocks may resort in the summer.' The sense of the whole passage is this: I do not wish by your friendship to acquire extensive lands, or to become rich in cattle, or to obtain a magnificent villa. He mentions as such a villa one extending up the hill of Tusculum, even to the walls of the city. Tusculum was situated on the top of the hill at whose foot now lies the town of Frascati. Its walls are called Circaea (line 30), because, according to tradition, Telegonus, son of Ulysses and Circe, founded the city. Compare Carm. iii. 29, 8.-33. Chremes, the usual name of an avaricious old man in the Greek comedies.



THE praises of country life. At the end of the poem, after describing very beautifully the pleasures of a residence away from the busy haunts of men, Horace turns the matter into a joke, and represents the picture which he has drawn as merely an agreeable fancy. We must not suppose, however, that the poet really preferred the town to the country. He did most sincerely love the country, but his connection with Maecenas and other circumstances kept him much at Rome. Such time as he could spare, he spent in the country, and this kind of mixed town and country life seems to have suited him best, for he does not deny that he could not always enjoy the entire seclusion of the country.

BEATUS ille qui procul negotiis,
Ut prisca gens mortalium,
Paterna rura bobus exercet suis,
Solutus omni fenore,

Neque excitatur classico miles truci,
Neque horret iratum mare,

Forumque vitat et superba civium
Potentiorum limina.

Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine
Altas maritat populos,

Aut in reducta valle mugientium

Prospectat errantes greges,

Feliciores inserit,




Inutilesque falce ramos amputans

Aut pressa puris mella condit amphoris,
Aut tondet infirmas oves:


Vel cum decorum mitibus pomis caput
Auctumnus agris extulit,

Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira

Certantem et uvam purpurae,

Qua muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater
Silvane, tutor finium.

Libet jacere modo sub antiqua ilice,
Modo in tenaci gramine.


9. The practice of training vines up poplars and elms is still preserved in Italy. The figurative expression maritare, used of joining the weak vine to the stronger tree, very beautiful.-11. Mugientium, scil. boum.-17. The sense of the figurative expression is: when the season of harvest with its fruits comes.-21. Qua munere

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Labuntur altis interim ripis aquae,
Queruntur in silvis aves,

Fontesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus,
Somnos quod invitet leves.

At cum tonantis annus hibernus Jovis

Imbres nivesque comparat,

Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane

Apros in obstantes plagas,

Aut amite levi rara tendit retia,

Turdis edacibus dolos,

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Pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo gruem 35

Jucunda captat praemia.

Quis non malarum, quas amor curas habet,

Haec inter obliviscitur?

Quodsi pudica mulier in partem juvet

Domum atque dulces liberos,

(Sabina qualis aut perusta solibus

Pernicis uxor Appuli),

Sacrum vetustis exstruat lignis focum
Lassi sub adventum viri,

Claudensque textis cratibus laetum pecus
Distenta siccet ubera,

Et horna dulci vina promens dolio
Dapes inemptas apparet :

Non me Lucrina juverint conchylia
Magisve rhombus aut scari,
Si quos Eois intonata fluctibus
Hiems ad hoc vertat mare.

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tur, to present thee with them;' that is, to offer them to thee, O Priapus, as the first-fruits.-27. The fountains murmur in opposition (namely, to other sounds in nature.') Lymphis manantibus, instrumental ablative, aqua manante. There seems to be a little tautology here, the poet having spoken immediately before of aquae rolling along within their lofty banks; but these are rivi, fluvii, larger than the fontes.-31. Multa cane. The feminine is used particularly of hunting dogs. -33. Rarum is a standing epithet of rete, all nets having interstices.-35. It was quite common at this time to eat cranes, birds of passage. At an after period, storks, too, were considered as delicacies. See Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxiii. 30.-37. The prose construction would be, quis non obliviscitur malarum curarum, quas amor habet? - 39. Quodsi, emphatic, if, therefore, a faithful wife,' &c. The apodosis begins with line 49.-45. Textae crates are the hurdles which form the sheepfold.-49. Connect non me magis juverint, the magis, which belongs to both clauses, being inserted in the second. The Lucrine Lake on the Campanian coast was famed for its oyster beds.-50. Rhombus, and especially scarus, the most valued sea-fishes. The latter was called by Ennius, in a poem on the art of cookery, cerebrum Jovis. The part of the sea generally frequented by the scarus was the east of the Mediterra

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