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LIBER QUARTUS.

CARMEN II.

AD IULUM ANTONIUM.

In this ode Horace excuses himself for not attempting that lofty kind of lyric poetry which Pindar had cultivated among the Greeks, but contenting himself with imitating the lighter songs of Alcaeus and Sappho. The poem is addressed to Mark Antony's son, Iulus Antonius, who was brought up by Augustus and his sister Octavia. At this time Antonius was held in respect and honour; so much so, indeed, that in the year 10 B. C., he obtained the consulship. Afterwards, however, in 2 B. C., he was discovered to be implicated in a conspiracy against the emperor, and was obliged to kill himself. The ode was written shortly before 13 B. C.

PINDARUM quisquis studet aemulari,
Iule, ceratis ope Daedalea

Nititur pennis vitreo daturus

Nomina ponto.

Monte decurrens velut amnis, imbres

Quem super notas aluere ripas,

Fervet immensusque ruit profundo

Pindarus ore,

Laurea donandus Apollinari,
per audaces nova dithyrambos

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2. Ceratis ope Daedalea-pennis, on wings which, like those once made by Daedalus, are but artificial, fastened with wax.' An allusion to the well-known story of Daedalus, who, with his son Icarus, flew away from Crete by means of wings which the father had constructed of wax. Icarus, however, the wax of his wings being melted by the sun, fell and was drowned in the sea, which, from his name, was afterwards called the Icarian.-3. Vitreo ponto. Compare i. 17, 20.6. Super notas ripas, over its well-known banks,' the banks within which it keeps when not swollen by rains. -7. Profundo ore; that is, grandiloquo, magnifico. The figure of the river is still preserved. 9. Apollinari. See iii. 30, 15.-10. Nova verba devolvit, an allusion to the fact that Pindar, in his dithy.

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Verba devolvit numerisque fertur
Lege solutis ;

Seu deos regesve canit, deorum
Sanguinem, per quos cecidere justa
Morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae
Flamma Chimaerae;

Sive, quos Elea domum reducit
Palma coelestes pugilemve equumve,
Dicit et centum potiore signis
Munere donat,

Flebili sponsae juvenemve raptum
Plorat, et vires animumque moresque
Aureos educit in astra nigroque
Invidet Orco.

Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnum,
Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos

Nubium tractus. Ego apis Matinae
More modoque,

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rambs, a very sublime kind of lyrics, composed properly only in honour of Bacchus, forms many new words, which, long compounds, are whirled along by his impetuous verse as great rocks are carried down by the force of a torrent. In these poems, too, the measures of his verse are more free, and put together more boldly; hence fertur numeris lege solutis, he rushes along in lawless measures.' 13. Deos, hymns to Jupiter-of which we have a small fragment— and to other gods. Reges, panegyrics or encomia on ancient kings and heroes, such as Pirithous and Theseus, who were sprung from gods (hence deorum sanguinem, put in apposition to reges), and waged a just war (hence justa morte) against the Centaurs, who had carried off Hippodamia, the bride of Pirithous: such, also, as Bellerophon, who slew the flame-breathing. Chimaera (here poetically flamma Chimaerae.) See ii. 17, 13.-17. This refers to the odes which Pindar wrote on the victors in the Olympian, Isthmian, and Nemean games, and some of which were on the horses that were victorious in the races. These are the only poems of Pindar which have come down to us entire. Elea palma, the palm-branch of Elis,' refers indeed only to the games at Olympia, but we must understand the others to be meant as well.-18. Coelestes, beatos, as proud and as happy as the gods. Compare i. 1, 6. Pugilem, victor in the pugilistic contests at Olympia.-21. Juvenemve. Ve supplies the place of sive or seu, which occurs in lines 10, 13, and 17. Hence construe thus: sive plorat juvenem raptum flebili sponsae. This class of poems, of which we have many fragments, is called in Greek Spñvoi (dirges.)—23. Educit for the more common effert or evehit, raises, extols to the stars.'-25. Dircaeum cycnum. This title is given to Pindar from Dirce, a fountain near Thebes, his native city. Multa aura levat, much air-that is, a strong breeze-raises him.' We use a similar expression, he takes a vigorous or lofty flight.'-27. Matinae. See i. 28, 3. The district was celebrated for the number of its bees, and the sweetness of its

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Grata carpentis thyma per laborem

Plurimum circa nemus uvidique

Tiburis ripas, operosa parvus
Carmina fingo.

Concines majore poeta plectro
Caesarem, quandoque trahet feroces
Per sacrum clivum, merita decorus
Fronde, Sygambros;

Quo nihil majus meliusve terris

Fata donavere bonique divi

Nec dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum
Tempora priscum.

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Concines laetosque dies et urbis
Publicum ludum super impetrato

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honey.-29. Per laborem plurimum, with great labour,' answering to the operosa carmina in line 31. Hence the meaning is: Pindar composed such sublime poetry by his genius: I, not possessing such lofty genius, work up my odes with labour and care. Majore plectro, the opposite of leviore plectro in ii. 1, 40, and hence equivalent to majore carmine, in a loftier kind of song;' for Iulus Antonius distinguished himself as a writer. He composed an epic, in twelve books, called Diomedea, in imitation of those Greek poets who treated of the whole circle of traditions regarding Troy. -34. Quandoque, when once he.' The Sygambri, a German tribe on the Rhine, Sieg, and Lippe, had in 16 B. c. gained an important victory over the Romans, under M. Lollius. Augustus was desirous to avenge this, and the poet imagines to himself already the triumph which the emperor would celebrate.-35. Per sacrum clivum, not elsewhere mentioned, but undoubtedly a part of the via sacra, along which the triumphal processions used to go up to the Capitol. Merita fronde; namely, lauro.-39. Quamvis─priscum; that is, in Milton's words, even though time were to run back, and fetch the age of gold.' This is truly splendid praise of the mild and happy reign of Augustus.-41. What follows has reference to the approaching happy return of Augustus from travelling through Gaul and Spain, in the year 13 B. C. To celebrate this return both senate and people made the most extensive preparations. Besides public prayers and sacrifices, holidays were proclaimed (laetos dies, festos dies), which were connected with a justitium; that is, a cessation not only of the business in the courts of justice and public offices (which the poet indicates, in line 43, by forum litibus orbum, = vacuum), but of business generally. Festal games (publicus ludus urbis, in line 42) were to be celebrated, and Augustus was to have a triumphal procession, to which lines 49 and following refer. Moreover, piety demanded that private persons also, such at least as stood in any particular relation to the emperor, should show their joy at his return, and their gratitude to the gods for it, by offering sacrifices. To this lines 53 and following refer.-42. Super impetrato reditu, on account of the return which, by our vows and

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Fortis Augusti reditu forumque
Litibus orbum.

Tum meae, si quid loquar audiendum,
Vocis accedet bona pars, et 'O Sol
Pulcher! O laudande!' canam, recepto
Caesare felix.

Tuque dum procedis, Io triumphe
Non semel dicemus, Io triumphe
Civitas omnis, dabimusque divis
Thura benignis.

Te decem tauri totidemque vaccae,
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta
Matre qui largis juvenescit herbis
In mea vota,

Fronte curvatos imitatus ignes
Tertium lunae referentis ortum,
Qua notam duxit, niveus videri,
Cetera fulvus.

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prayers, we have obtained from the gods.'-45. Si quid loquar audiendum; that is, if my voice shall be audible amid the joyful shouts of the crowds who are accompanying and welcoming Augustus. 46. Sol dies: hence, O beautiful day!'-49. Tu dum procedis; that is, whilst thou, Iulus Antonius, marchest proudly along in the triumphal train among the senators and kinsmen of the emperor, I shall, in the midst of the crowd, join the shout of Io triumphe! This was the usual shout with which the Romans greeted triumphing generals. -51. Civitas omnis. Supply dicet from the preceding dicemus. Dabimus thura. Whilst the procession advanced along the principal streets, incense was burnt (in token of gratitude to the gods) on altars which had been erected at the sides of the streets. 54. Solvet, will free;' namely, from the vows which I have offered for the safe return of Augustus.-57. Ignes tertium lunae referentis ortum, the fiery form of the moon when she rises for the third time:' that is, the horns of the calf are like those of the moon when she is three days old.-59. Qua notam duxit, 'where it has a spot,' a white one. Niveus videri, 'snow-white to be seen; that is, in appearance; a construction in imitation of the Greek. The rest of the animal is fulvus, here 'light-red.'

CARMEN III.

AD MELPOMENEN.

ODE to the Muse, in which Horace acknowledges that at last, after much envy and disparagement, he has obtained some recognition of his merits as a poet.

QUEM tu, Melpomene, semel

Nascentem placido lumine videris,
Illum non labor Isthmius

Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger
Curru ducet Achaico

Victorem, neque res bellica Deliis
Ornatum foliis ducem,

Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas,
Ostendet Capitolio :

Sed quae Tiber aquae fertile praefluunt

Et spissae nemorum comae

Fingent Aeolio carmine nobilem.

Romae, principis urbium,

Dignatur soboles inter amabiles
Vatum ponere me choros,

Et jam dente minus mordeor invido.

Ŏ testudinis aureae

Dulcem quae strepitum, Pieri, temperas,

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4. The verb clarare is antique and rare. The common word is nobilitare. Compare aeternare in iv. 14, 5.-5. Curru-victorem, an allusion to the fact that the victors in the Grecian games used to enter their native city triumphantly, riding in a chariot. The sense of the whole passage is: if the muse is favourable to a man, he will not, if a Greek, strive in the games to attain the highest honour which could fall to the lot of any one in Greece; nor, if a Roman, will he prosecute a military life, and gain fame thereby. 6. Deliis foliis; namely, lauro, which was sacred to Apollo, the god of Delos. 8. Regum. Most of the nations with which the Romans carried on war were governed by kings, particularly the Eastern nations. Of their tumidae minae, 'swelling- that is, angry or boastful-threats,' Horace could speak with great justice.-10. The sense is he who has a poetical genius will cultivate it in solitude, and thus make himself famous.-12. Fingent, = efficient, will make him, will so train and inspire him that he will become illustrious.'14. Soboles here = populus. Roma is here conceived as a goddess, whose children the Romans are. Amabiles should properly have been joined to vatum. 17. Aureae, a frequent epithet of the lyre, expressive of its excellence.-18. Pieri. The singular is rare.—

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