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and love are always supposed to go together.-7. Vetus ara, thy old altar,' such as country people usually have. - 12. Pagus, the village; that is, the country people; said without any special reference to Horace's estate.-13. A sign of the power of Faunus: he can make the sheep bold and the wolf tame.-14. This probably refers to the fact that the country people used to strew over with leaves the place where they held the festival of Faunus.-15. Fossor, the vinedresser,' by whom the earth is invisa, hated,' because he has to work on it. Gaudet pepulisse, he rejoices in beating it;' that is, in dancing. He beats it ter, because the measure of the dance is triple time.

CARMEN XIX.

AD TELEPHUM.

AN ode, containing instructions, delivered in a playful strain, regarding the proper subjects of conversation at banquets. The poet asks not for learned discussions, but for free, easy talk about wine, baths, taverns, and love, interspersed occasionally with a toast to any friend who has recently met with good fortune, or the like.

QUANTUM distet ab Inacho

Codrus, pro patria non timidus mori,
Narras, et genus Aeaci

Et pugnata sacro bella sub Ilio;

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2. Codrus, the last king of Athens, in a battle with the Heraclidae, voluntarily gave up his life for the safety of his country: hence he is here called non timidus audax, mori pro patria. His line of descent from Inachus, a mythical king of Argos, is adduced as an instance of an abstruse but very unprofitable subject of conversation, as also the genealogy of Aeacus, from whom Peleus, Achilles, Telamon, and Ajax were said to be sprung.-4. Sacro Ilio,

Quo Chium pretio cadum

Mercemur, quis aquam temperet ignibus,

Quo praebente domum et quota
Pelignis caream frigoribus, taces.

Da lunae propere novae,

Da noctis mediae, da puer auguris
Murenae. Tribus aut novem
Miscentur cyathis pocula commodis.
Qui Musas amat impares,

Ternos ter cyathos attonitus petet
Vates; tres prohibet supra
Rixarum metuens tangere Gratia
Nudis juncta sororibus.

Insanire juvat. Cur Berecyntiae

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a standing phrase in Homer, "Idios on. — 6. Quis aquam temperet ignibus, who makes the water bearable, comfortably tepid, by fire; that is, who prepares warm baths. We are perhaps to understand the reference to be to public baths, the excellences or defects of which were a suitable subject for table-talk. · 7. Quo praebente, &c. This is to be understood of an inn or tavern-keeper, who lets one of his rooms to a company. Quota, scil. hora, at what hour.'8. Pelignis frigoribus; that is, cold such as prevails among the Apennines, where the Peligni dwell. Hence we see that the ode was written in winter.-9. Da, supply cyathum, 'give me a cup, novae lunae, to drink to the new moon." Compare iii. 8, 13.-10. Noctis mediae, to drink_to_midnight,' to which we mean to extend our carousal. Auguris Murenae, to the health of our augur Murena;' that is, to the health of our friend Murena, who has recently obtained the priestly office of augur. Who this Murena was is uncertain.-11. Tribus aut novem, etc. The sense may be gathered from the following explanation:-A poculum, one of the large cups out of which the Romans drank, held about as much as twelve cyathismall cups which were used for taking the wine from the pitcher. Now the wine was very seldom drunk unmixed, and there were chiefly two degrees of mixture: first, three cyathi of wine, in nine of water; that is, only one-fourth being wine-this was the mixture commonly preferred; and secondly, three cyathi of water in nine of wine, thus three-fourths being wine. This latter mixture pleases the poet, who means to put himself into an inspired (attonitus, enthusiastic) state of mind. He would have even three more cyathi of wine (line 15, tres supra, 'three besides,' besides the nine); that is, he would drink his wine pure, but this would intoxicate him, and make him offend the Graces; that is, transgress the rules of propriety.-12. Commodis, a poetical construction for the adverb commode, suitably, properly, comfortably.'-13. Impares, because there were nine, an odd number. - 17. Nudis juncta sororibus, for the Graces are often represented naked, twined in each other's arms. -18. The flutes are called Berecyntiae, because they were used in the worship of the Mater magna; and Berecyntus is a mountain in

Cessant flamina tibiae?

Cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyra?
Parcentes ego dexteras
Odi: sparge rosas; audiat invidus
Dementem strepitum Lycus
Et vicina seni non habilis Lyco.
Spissa te nitidum coma,

Puro te similem, Telephe, Vespero
Tempestiva petit Rhode;

Me lentus Glycerae torret amor meae.

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Phrygia, which was the chief seat of this deity.-20. Pendet, hang on the wall.-21. Parcentes dexteras, niggardly hands,' hands that do not always give bountifully at a banquet.-23. Lycus, a fictitious name for a churlish old man, who lives in the neighbourhood. The names which come afterwards are also fictitious.-24. Non habilis = non apta, not suitable,' because she is too young for him.-25. Spissa coma, with thick hair,' an ablative of quality. Thick hair being a sign of youth, Telephus is contrasted with old Lycus.-26. Puro similem Vespero, like the evening star, when it rises in a clear, cloudless sky.'-27. Tempestiva; that is, suited to thy youth, which is still tender.

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CARMEN XXI.

AD AMPHORAM.

ODE to a wine-pitcher, which the poet has had brought down from the so-called apotheca (see iii. 8, 11, note), for the entertainment of his patron and friend M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus. Messalla was born in the year 59 B. C., and in his youth distinguished himself in the army of Brutus and Cassius by his talents for military command. He afterwards joined the party of Antony, then that of Octavianus, was consul in the year 31 B. C., and triumphed in the year 27 B. C., after the conquest of the Aquitani. After this he lived in literary leisure, devoted especially to the study and practice of oratory; and it is his ability in regard to this which Horace extols in this ode, briefly, indeed, but highly.

O NATA mecum consule Manlio,
Seu tu querelas sive geris jocos

1. Nata mecum, sprung, grown (which should properly have been said of the wine itself) with me,' in the year 65 B. c., when L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus were consuls.-2. Seu geris, whether thou carriest along with thee.' The poet fancies that wine, when grown and pressed, receives, as it were by divine

Seu rixam et insanos amores

Seu facilem, pia testa, somnum,

Quocunque lectum nomine Massicum
Servas, moveri digna bono die,
Descende, Corvino jubente

Promere languidiora vina.

Non ille, quamquam Socraticis madet
Sermonibus, te neglegit horridus:
Narratur et prisci Catonis

Saepe mero caluisse virtus.

Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves,

Plerumque duro; tu sapientium
Curas et arcanum jocoso

Consilium retegis Lyaeo;

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis
Viresque et addis cornua pauperi,
Post te neque iratos trementi
Regum apices neque militum arma.

Te Liber et, si laeta aderit, Venus
Segnesque nodum solvere Gratiae

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appointment, the power of exciting a particular feeling or disposition, either cheerfulness or sadness, quarrelsomeness, love, or sleepiness. Hence in line 5, in speaking of the Massic wine, he says Quocunque nomine lectum, gathered with whatever destination. Properly, the grapes only are gathered.-6. Moveri digna bono die, a poetical construction, after the Greek, for digna quae movearis bono die. A dies bonus is a lucky day,' opposed to dies ater. -7. Descende; namely, from the apotheca, which was in the upper part of the house. Jubente; that is, since the presence of Corvinus commands, since my joy at the fact that Corvinus will partake of a banquet with me, and my desire to honour him lead (order) me to bring down milder (that is, older) wine (languidiora vina; see iii. 16, 35.) We must not, however, imagine that Corvinus was really impertinent enough to assume the master in his friend's house. - 9. The word madet is often used of one who has drunk plentifully of wine hence it is here applied to Corvinus, as full of such conversations as Socrates and his disciples used to hold. These were celebrated in antiquity not so much for their philosophic depth and learning as for their wit and gracefulness. 10. Horridus, 'barbarous, uncultivated,' hence austere.'-11. Prisci Catonis, old Cato;' that is, Cato the Elder, called Censorius, by whose advice Carthage was destroyed. - 13. Lene tormentum, a gentle torture.' Thou subduest a stern and otherwise inflexible character, by torturing it, as it were, after a pleasant fashion. Those whom the rack could not bend often yield to the gentle force of wine.-16. Lyaeo. See i. 7, 22.-18. Cornua, courage,' as the animals that have horns possess more courage than others.-20. Apices; that is, diademata. See i. 34, 14.-21. Te-producent, thee (properly, the amphora, hence the banquet which is kept up with the wine from the amphora) they shall prolong.'-22. Segnes nodum solvere; that

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Vivaeque producent lucernae,

Dum rediens fugat astrà Phoebus.

is, quae raro, quae nunquam solvunt nodum. Compare i. 30, 6; and iii. 19, 17.-23. Vivae, living;' that is, burning.

CARMEN XXIII.

AD PHIDYLEN.

CONSOLATORY ode to a poor woman. The gods look not upon rich offerings and splendid presents, but upon purity of character.

COELO supinas si tuleris manus
Nascente Luna, rustica Phidyle,
Si thure placaris et horna
Fruge Lares avidaque porca;
Nec pestilentem sentiet Africum
Fecunda vitis, nec sterilem seges
Robiginem aut dulces alumni
Pomifero grave tempus anno.

Nam quae nivali pascitur Algido
Devota quercus inter et ilices
Aut crescit Albanis in herbis
Victima, pontificum secures

Cervice tinget: te nihil attinet
Tentare multa caede bidentium
Parvos coronantem marino
Rore deos fragilique myrto.

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1. Coelo ad coelum. Supinas manus. Suppliants raised their hands before them, turning the palms outwards. -3. Horna fruge, 'with fruits such as the year has brought thee.'-5. Pestilentem Africum, the devastating Scirocco. See i. 3, 12.-7. Robiginem, a disease in grain, mildew, blight.' Dulces alumni, the young goats, sheep, &c. Compare iii. 18, 4.-8. Pomifero anno; that is, auctumno, in autumn.'-9. The Ronan pontifices possessed on Mount Algidus (as to which compare i. 21, 6), and near Alba Longa extensive pastures, on which the cattle grazed that were intended for the great public sacrifices of the Roman people. Hence the sense is this: let the pontifices care for greater sacrifices, yours need only be small.-10. Devota, 'consecrated to the gods.'-14. Multa caede bidentium, poetical for caede multarum ovium; for bidentes was the name given in the Roman sacrificial language to sheep two years old.-15. Parvos deos; namely, the Lares, of whom thou hast little images upon thy hearth.-16. Fragili, 'delicate,' easily broken. 9*

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