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1. Amice, 'contentedly, without complaints.' As to pauperies, compare i. 1, 18, note.-2. Puer, the Roman 'boy,' 'or rather youth,' for the name of puer was given even to young men who had reached the military age-seventeen.-5. Trepidis in rebus, 'in dangers.'6. The author is thinking of a scene in Homer (Il. iii. 154), where the Trojan women, particularly the daughters of Priam, look down from the walls and towers of the city upon the battle, being anxious about their husbands and fathers.-9. Suspiret =suspirans metuat, for the following ne depends upon it. Rudis agminum, inexperienced in war' = rudis belli.-10. Sponsus regius is to be understood as the son of an allied king, who has been betrothed to the daughter of the king who is waging war (bellantis tyranni).— 12. Ira, the wild fury of the lion thirsting for blood.-14. Fugacem, generally, one who is accustomed to flee;' here simply, fleeing, fugitive.-16. Poplitibus timidoque tergo. The back and hollow of the knees are exposed to the enemy by a fugitive, instead of the breast, which the stout fighter displays. 17. Virtus, both the valour of which the poet has just spoken, and virtue in general. Nescia sordidae repulsae, which knows no disgraceful repulse ;' that is, is always conscious, if ever it sustains a repulse, that it was unmerited, and therefore not disgraceful. Hence its honores

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Nec sumit aut ponit secures
Arbitrio popularis aurae.

Virtus, recludens immeritis mori

Coelum, negata tentat iter via,
Coetusque vulgares et udam
Spernit humum fugiente penna.


Est et fideli tuta silentio

Merces vetabo, qui Cereris sacrum
Vulgarit arcanae, sub isdem

Sit trabibus fragilemve mecum
Solvat phaselon: saepe Diespiter

Neglectus incesto addidit integrum;
Raro antecedentem scelestum

Deseruit pede poena claudo.



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are called intaminati incontaminati, 'undefiled, pure.' - 19. Secures, the axes which were stuck in the fasces of the Roman magistrates. Hence the meaning is this: the favour of the people can neither give to virtue honour, nor take it away: she has it of herself.-21. Immeritis mori; that is, immortalitate dignis, men deserving of immortality.' 22. Negata-via, by a way denied to it; that is, 'difficult.' Compare i. 22, 22.- 23. Udam humum, 'the damp earth,' enveloped in unwholesome mists, and which can therefore afford no fitting seat for virtue. She flies away towards heaven, fugiente penna, on fugitive wing.'-25. Fideli silentio, 'to the silence of faith;' that is, to the preservation of silence promised.' This virtue was exhibited particularly in keeping undivulged the mysteries of the gods.-26. Construe thus: vetabo (that is, prohibebo), (ne) sub iisdem sit trabibus, etc. (is) qui vulgarit. The mysteries of Ceres, which were particularly holy as exhibited at Eleusis in Attica, were also celebrated with great solemnity at Rome.-27. Sub isdem trabibus, in the same house, under the same roof.'-29. Diespiter. See i. 34, 5.-30. Incesto addidit integrum, has added the good man to the bad; that is, has destroyed the righteous man with the wicked; has, in his wrath against the wicked, destroyed at the same time the good.'- 31. The sense is this: it is rare that a criminal escapes punishment, although she (Punishment) with her limping gait may come but slowly after him.



An ode to Augustus, in which he is praised in a beautiful and polished manner, but truthfully. Horace extols in him the genuinely Roman virtue of perseverance and firmness (constantia), and shows that by it all the great heroes who, according to the belief of the ancients, had been raised to the position of gods had obtained their fame. He considers Augustus as belonging to this class, and in fact there was nothing in the emperor so well worthy of praise as the determination and steadiness by which, when a young man, he overcame the greatest obstacles, and reached his aim. The poet spends a considerable time in describing how Romulus was assumed into the number of the gods, no doubt with the view that Augustus should be pointed to as a second Romulus. The ode was written about the year 21 B. C.

JUSTUM et tenacem propositi virum
Non civium ardor prava jubentium,
Non vultus instantis tyranni
Mente quatit solida, neque Auster,
Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae,

Nec fulminantis magna manus Jovis:
Si fractus illabatur orbis,

Impavidum ferient ruinae.

Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules

Enisus arces attigit igneas,



Quos inter Augustus recumbens
Purpureo bibit ore nectar.

1. Tenacem propositi, firm to his purpose, steady-minded' = constantem.-2. Ardor, the passion.'- -3. Instantis, 'threatening.' -4. Mente quatit solida, drives from a purpose formed for good reasons,' for this is what is here called mens solida.-5. Dux Hadriae. Compare i. 3, 15.-6. Magna manus, the great (that is, mighty, powerful) hand.'—7. Orbis, 'the vault of heaven, the sky.' 9. Hac arte hac virtute; namely, constantia. These heroes kept firm in the pursuit of their objects. Pollux did not reach heaven alone, but in company with his brother Castor; the two being the Dioscuri. Frequently, however, the name of the one is used to indicate both. Vagus, the far-wandered;' for Hercules is said to have travelled to Spain (even to the western ocean), to Africa, and to Asia, everywhere delivering mankind from monsters.- 10. Enisus igneas. Eniti is to raise one's self by labour from a lower to a higher position, 'to struggle for ward.' Arces igneae, the sky, because it is lofty (arx, and studded with stars (ignes.)—12. Purpureo ore, 'with rosy lips,' to indicate

Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae
Vexere tigres indocili jugum
Collo trahentes; hac Quirinus

Martis equis Acheronta fugit,
Gratum elocuta consiliantibus
Junone divis: 'Ilion, Ilion
Fatalis incestusque judex

Et mulier peregrina vertit

In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi
Castaeque damnatum Minervae
Cum populo et duce fraudulento.
Jam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterae
Famosus hospes, nec Priami domus

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the eternal youth which he enjoys as a god.-13. Hac-trahentes. An allusion to the triumphal march of Bacchus as he returned from India, after spreading over the whole world his precepts of civilization.-14. Indocili collo, with their necks, ill to teach (namely, to bear the yoke.)-15. Hac Quirinus. The tradition was, that Romulus had been taken up to heaven by his father Mars in his chariot, and that the Romans had named him, as a god, Quirinus.-17. The scene which Horace describes is this: A council of the gods is held, to determine whether Romulus shall be taken into their number, and in it Juno delivers the speech which we have following. In this speech she speaks strongly against the restoration of Ilium. Why, we naturally ask, does Horace (through the goddess) so much condemn the restoration of Troy, even going so far as to say, that Rome can endure only if Troy remains in ruins? For we know that Augustus really did rebuild Troy; and by granting it privileges, and settling many colonists in it, made it an important town. But he had it in his mind to do more: there was a report that he intended to make Troy the seat of government, and leave Rome. This is what Horace opposes. Connect gratum consiliantibus divis, a thing agreeable to the deliberating gods.'-19. Judex; namely, Paris, son of king Priam, who gave judgment in the dispute between Juno, Minerva, and Venus, regarding their beauty. Fatalis, 'appointed by fate,' which had doomed the fall of Troy.-20. Mulier peregrina, Helen, whom Paris carried off from Sparta. Compare i. 15, 5.-21. Connect ex quo with damnatum, &c. in line 23. Damnatum belongs to Ilion: condemned by me and Minerva, ever since the time when Laomedon cheated the gods.' Destituit = fraudavit, privavit, and on this account construed with the ablative, mercede pacta. Laomedon, father of Priam, had bargained with Apollo and Neptune to build the walls of Troy for a team of horses; but when the walls were finished, he refused to fulfil his engagement.-24. Duce fraudulento; namely, Laomedon. It is true, the punishment fell upon the innocent Priam, but the whole royal race of Troy was faithless. Hence (in line 27) perjura domus Priami.-25. Lacaenae-adulterae-hospes; namely, Paris, who seduced Helen when he was a guest in her husband's house.

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Horrenda late nomen in ultimas
Extendat oras, qua medius liquor
Secernit Europen ab Afro,

Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus,


He no more goes about in his glittering armour (splendet.)-29. Nostris ductum seditionibus, 'drawn out, prolonged (for this is bellum ducere) by dissensions among ourselves,' the gods. For whilst Juno and Minerva were hostile to the Trojans, Venus, Mars, and Apollo defended them. Jupiter wavered between the two parties.-30. Resedit extinctum est, is finished.' Protinus. The connection of ideas is as follows:-As my desire of revenge has been gratified by the destruction of Troy, I will not persecute the descendants of its inhabitants, and I forthwith (for this is protinus) vote for the assumption of Romulus among the gods. The Romans were (that is, believed themselves to be) descendants of the Trojans. Rea Silvia, who became by Mars the mother of Romulus, was a vestal virgin, and is here called Troica sacerdos on account of her descent. -33. Redonabo, in prose condonabo, I will make a present of him to Mars; that is, 'will pardon him for the sake of Mars, and will give up my anger to please him.' Lucidas-sedes. Compare arces igneas in line 10.-37. Inter, in prose, would have to be placed immediately before Ilion.- 48. Exules; that is, the Romans, descendants of the fugitive Aeneas.-40. Busto. This is a mere poetical idea, and must be understood as 'the spot where they fell;' for the Trojan heroes had no monuments erected to them. Some of the Greek warriors, however as, for instance, Achilles had monuments, which existed even in later times. -41. Insultet, leaps upon them, or over them,' thus dishonouring them.-43. Triumphat is, a poetical construction, over whom she has triumphed.'-46. Medius liquor, the middle water;' that is, 'the Mediterranean Sea.'-48. Tumidus, swelling;' that is, which annually, at a particular season, swells and inundates the country.

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