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237. crispèd (Lat. crispare, to curl), rippling like curly hair. Tennyson uses the word in the same sense in his Claribel:

"The babbling runnel crispeth."

238. orient (Lat. orior, to rise), originally meant 'rising,' then, as the sun rises in the East, 'eastern,' and, finally, as the East abounds in bright colours, bright.' From a comparison with the opening lines of Book II., it appears that in this passage "orient" meant 'eastern.' In 644 orient" has its original meaning, 'rising.' In XI. 205, it means 'bright.'

pearl and sands of gold, suggested by the Biblical account which tells us that the first of the four rivers, the "four main streams" of 233,"compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone." The Hebrew word represented in the English version by bdellium was supposed by the Jewish rabbis to be a collective term for pearls.

239. error, used in its literal Latin sense, 'wandering.' Compare 1001.

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240. Ran nectar, made nectar flow. 'Run' is here used transitively in a causative sense, as when we speak of a man running a horse, or when Shakespeare describes how Pompey's statue, at the time of the death of Caesar, ran blood." Or we might regard "nectar" as in apposition to "the brooks," since "the brooks" and "nectar" are names of the same thing. Compare 229. According to Greek mythology, nectar is the drink and ambrosia is the food of the gods.

241. nice Art, strict adherence to the rules of the art of horticulture. Milton here expresses his sense of the superiority of natural beauty over gardens arranged in the Dutch style, with its artificial arrangement of curiously shaped beds and parterres. Bacon, in his essay On Gardens, remarks, "As for the making of knots or figures with diverse coloured earths, they be but toys," from which it appears that garden knots were composed of thin strips of different kinds of earth arranged in complicated figures. Pope also condemns this practice, calling the result "a flourished carpet where the greatness and nobleness of the piece is lessened by being divided into too many parts, with scroll'd work and beds." Pope's "scroll'd work" would seem to be equivalent to Milton's "curious knots." Nice art' is subject of some such verb as 'arranged,' understood by zeugma from "poured forth." Compare 24.

242. boon, bounteous, benignant. This adjective survives in the term 'boon companion.'

245. unpierced shade, the shadow of foliage which the sunlight could not penetrate.

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246. Imbrowned, darkened. 'Brown' is used in the sense of 'dark' in IX. 1088, and Paradise Regained, II. 293. Tennyson also speaks of the "twilight falling brown." But this meaning of the word, which is traceable to the use of the Italian bruno in the sense of 'dark,' is obsolete except in poetry. Compare note on 769.

noontide bowers, the bowers at mid-day. Notice the adjective used instead of an adverb of time, and compare Aeneid, VIII. 465; Iliad, vIII. 554, and Wordsworth's

"Gently they laid them down as evening sheep."

In 1. 244 we have the same usage exemplified by an instance, which is no longer poetical, but is adopted into ordinary language.

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Thus was this place. It is doubtful whether there should be a comma after 'place' or not. If there is no comma, thus" is used as a conjunction, meaning 'consequently,' 'owing to the facts just mentioned,' and "seat" is in predicative apposition to "place. If a comma comes after "place,' "thus" is an adverb, modifying "was ('this place was thus' 'this place was such as I have described it '), and "seat" is in ordinary apposition to place."

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248, 249. Groves and Others (other groves) in the following line are in loose apposition to "seat."

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248. wept odorous gums. 'Gums may be regarded as a cognate object, cognate in meaning, but not in derivation, after "wept" (compare I. 620), the gums being regarded as the tears of the trees. Or the construction may be explained on the analogy of "blooming fruit" (219), as the verb "wept" suggests 'produced by weeping. Compare II. 491, where there is a similar room for different opinions about the construction.

249. burnished, polished. Compare 149, 700, and

"While the deep burnished foliage overhead
Splintered the silver arrows of the moon

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(Matthew Arnold).

250. Hesperian fables. The fable alluded to is the fable of the golden apples of the Hesperides, which grew in a garden far away to the west in the neighbourhood of Mount Atlas. Milton means that the story of golden apples was false, unless it were related of the Garden of Eden. Fables true" is an oxymoron, as a fable is a fiction or false story (II. 627; Comus, 800). How then can a fable be true? Only in this way, that something related in a false story (e.g. the existence of golden apples) may be in accordance with fact. Milton adds the conditional clause "if true," to suggest a doubt whether the existence of golden apples in Paradise can in any way be regarded as a proof of the truth or partial truth of the story of the Hesperides. ~ The paren

thetical clause may be regarded as a nominative absolute, the peculiarity being that the absolute noun has an adjective, instead of a participle, in agreement with it. Compare

"And, her attendant absent, swallowed fire "

(Julius Caesar, rv. iii. 156).

We may call such constructions either nominative absolutes or, as Adams prefers, dative absolutes, when the participle agrees with a noun. When a pronoun takes the place of a noun, the inflection determines whether it is nominative or dative. Both cases are used by Milton. See II. 1023 and 1x. 130.

251. This line may be scanned as follows:

"If true, here on | ly, and of | delicious taste."

We may regard "-ly and" as two unaccented syllables, or as coalescing into one syllable. "Delicious is pronounced as a trisyllable.

253. Grazing, eating. "Graze " as a transitive verb more often governs the animals that feed.

255. irriguous, well watered.

256. without thorn the rose. Keightley compares :

"Before man's fall, the rose was born

(St. Ambrose says) without the thorn" (Herrick).

257. Another side, used adverbially. On the other side (are) grots and caves affording shelter from the heat of the sun.

258. mantling vine, covering the rocks as with a mantle. 262. Fringed bank = "rushy-fringed bank" (Comus, 890). 263. Her crystal mirror holds, reflects in her bright waters as in a mirror the reeds with which her margin is bordered and the myrtles flourishing on her banks. 'Lake' is feminine because

the Latin, lacus, is feminine.

264. their quire apply, address their music, sc. to any who may be in hearing. Compare Fairy Queen, II. xii. 32:

"So now to Guyon, as he passed by,

Their pleasant tunes they sweetly thus applied.”

airs, vernal airs. The repetition of a word that the writer wishes to dwell upon is very frequent in poetry and is called anadiplosis. Compare:

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Motionless, white, he lay

White with eyes closed; only when heavy gasps,
Deep heavy gasps quivering through all his frame,

Convulsed him back to life, he open'd them" (M. Arnold). 265, 266. attune, The trembling leaves, make the foliage rustle musically.

266. universal Pan. As pan in Greek means 'the whole,' "universal" is an etymological epithet, that is, an epithet which gives the etymology of the noun it qualifies. Many such passages suggesting etymology are found in poetry. Compare 214; 1. 392; II. 512, 577-583, 630; and Aeneid, III. 693, 698, 703. Pan, in Greek mythology, was the God of Shepherds, and the name is used in its Greek mythological sense in 707. Here "Pan" means 'the whole of nature personified.' In the Nativity Ode the term is used in a still higher sense to express God as the God of

nature.

267. Knit with, united with.

268. Led. We should expect 'leads.'

the eternal Spring. Compare x. 678, where we learn that, but for the changes introduced in the solar system after the fall of man, there would have been "perpetual spring" on earth. The eternal spring enjoyed by Adam and Eve in Paradise is contrasted with the succession of seasons that now is the rule of nature.

Not that fair field. Milton resembles Spenser in his fondness for comparing the fictions of Greek and Latin and mediaeval story to their disadvantage with the subject of his own narrative. Compare with this passage 706; 1. 573-589, 717-722; IX. 13-19; x. 306-311, 526-531; xI. 128-133; Paradise Regained, II. 350-361, and Fairy Queen, II. xii. 52.

269. Enna, a town in Sicily, in a valley near which Pluto (Dis), the Greek God of Hell, seized Proserpine, the daughter of Ceres, and carried her away to be queen of the world below. Ceres wandered over the world, searching for her lost daughter.

Proserpin must here be pronounced with the accent on the second syllable.

"a rose in roses.

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270. Herself a fairer flower. So Tennyson describes the gardener's daughter as 272. that, the well known. The Latin, ille (that), is used in the same sense.

273. Daphne was the name of a beautiful grove, sacred to Apollo, on the banks of the river Orontes, near Antioch.

274. Castalian spring. Castalia was the name of a spring sacred to Apollo and the Muses on Mount Parnassus near Delphi. The same name was given to a spring in Daphne, supposed to have similar powers of giving poetical inspiration to those who drank its waters.

275. that Nyseian isle, the island of Nysa, surrounded by the river Triton, in Libya. According to the ordinary classical mythology Bacchus was the son of Juppiter and Semele, and Juppiter was the son of Saturn and Rhea. But Milton here

follows a legend told by Diodorus Siculus, according to which an African king called Ammon, afterwards deified as Juppiter Ammon (Libyan Jove), married Rhea. Afterwards he fell in love with Amalthea, who bore him Bacchus, and, fearing the jealousy of his wife Rhea, hid mother and son in the island of Nysa. Milton chooses to identify this Egyptian God, Ammon, whom Alexander visited at his oracle in Libya and claimed as his father, with Ham or Cham, the son of Noah, and ancestor of the Egyptian nation. Usually Milton identifies heathen gods with the fallen angels, as in 1. 364-521. But occasionally he identifies them, as here, with human characters in the Bible. Thus, in 717, he identifies Japhet, another son of Noah, with the Titan Iapetus, and in x. 581 he is inclined to identify Eve with Eurynome.

278. florid, flushed with red. The epithet expresses the result that drinking wine produces on the countenance.

279. his stepdame, the stepmother of Bacchus, namely Rhea, according to the story related by Diodorus Siculus.

280. Nor, where. Notice the rhetorical order of words by which the name is not mentioned till the last, and compare III. 469-473.

281. Mount Amara, a very high mountain supposed to be situated near the source of the Nile, on the equator (the Aethiop line). On the top of this mountain the children of the Abyssinian (Abassin) kings were kept secluded from the world in palaces surrounded by beautiful gardens lest they might rise in rebellion. Johnson made this story the groundwork of his Rasselas.

285. this Assyrian garden. Paradise is loosely called an Assyrian garden, because it was situated in Eden, the limits of which, as given in 210-214, included Assyria.

286. Saw undelighted all delight, saw without pleasure every kind of object framed to afford pleasure to the mind and sense. An oxymoron, like 110. In 167 Satan is represented as taking pleasure in the delightful perfumes.

288. Here at last we have introduced to us in a fine descriptive passage the hero and heroine of the epic.

289. God-like erect, standing erect in god-like posture. See 479.

clad. Notice the antithesis between "clad" and "naked in the next line.

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292. The image of their glorious Maker. According to the Bible, God made man in His own image. See VII. 526. Milton makes the resemblance consist in the god-like moral qualities possessed by Adam and Eve, and clearly revealed in their

countenances.

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