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ΦΑΙΔ. Καὶ μὴν ἔγωγε θαυμάσια ἔπαθον παραγε‐ νόμενος. οὔτε γὰρ ὡς θανάτῳ παρόντα με ἀνδρὸς ἐπιτηδείου ἔλεος εἰσῄει· εὐδαίμων γάρ μοι ἀνὴρ ἐφαίνετο, ὦ Εχέκρατες, καὶ τοῦ τρόπου καὶ τῶν λόγων, ὡς ἀδεῶς καὶ γενναίως ἐτελεύτα, ὥστ ̓ ἐμοὶ ἐκεῖνον παρίστασθαι μηδ ̓ εἰς ̔́Αιδου ἰόντα ἄνευ θείας μοίρας ἰέναι, ἀλλὰ κἀκεῖσε ἀφικόμενον εὖ πράξειν, εἴ πέρ τις πώποτε καὶ ἄλλος. διὰ δὴ ταῦτα οὐδὲν πάνυ μοι
milarly affected with yourself; so Heindorf; At vero etiam qui te audituri sint, similiter affectos habes ; who compares de Repub. vi. p. 498. G. ἄνδρα ἀρετῇ παρισωμένον καὶ ὁμοιωμένον μέχρι τοῦ δυνατοῦ τελέως, ἔργῳ τε καὶ λόγῳ δυναστεύοντα ἐν πόλει ἑτέρᾳ τοιαύτη, οὐ πώποτε ἑωράκασι. Lach. p. 200. A. αὐτὸς ἄρτι ἐφάνης ἀνδρίας πέρι οὐδὲν εἰδώς· ἀλλ ̓ εἰ καὶ ἐγὼ ἕτερος τοιοῦτος φανήσομαι, &c. Phædr. c. 45. γεννάδας καὶ πρᾷος τὸ ἦθος, ἑτέρου δὲ τοιούτου ἐρῶν. Cf. infr. c. 29. a med. τοιοῦτον τόπον ἕτερον.
Παρόντα με---εἰσῄει] Εἰσιέναι and εἰσέρχεσθαι, like the Latin subire, are used to express the affection of the mind by the passions of hope, joy, sorrow, compassion, &c. Eurip. Med. 931. εἰσῆλθε μ ̓ οἶκτος. Iphig. Αul. 491. ἔλεος εἰσῆλθε. v. Valckenar. ad Phæniss. 1378. p. 464. sq. This construction is varied infr. οὐδὲν πάνυ μοι ἐλέεινὸν εἰσῄει ; verbs compounded with prepositions which never govern a dative, sometimes taking the dative, when they express such a direction to an object, as εἰσέρχεσχαί τινι. Matthiæ Gr.
s. 402. c.
cumstances. Hemsterhuis. ad Lucian. Contempl. c. 13. Taylor. ad Lysiam ed. Reiske, p. 83. It is found, too, with δόξα οι τοῦτο, as Lys. in Eratosth. p. 424. καὶ μηδενὶ τοῦτο παραστῇ, ὡς—θηραμένους κατηγορῶ; and without any such addition as in the text, and Thucyd. vi. 68. καὶ παραστήτω παντὶ, τὸ μὲν καταφρονεῖν, &c.
Εἰς "Αίδου.] See infr. c. 29. a med. εἰς "Αιδου ὡς ἀληθῶς. Socrates, in Cratyl. cc. 44. 45. p. 45. 46., argues against the common acceptation of "Atδης, and its attendant prejudices. ΣΩΚ. Καὶ τό γε ὄνομα ὁ "Αιδης, ὦ Ἑρμόγενες, πολλοῦ δεῖ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀειδοῦς ἐπωνομάσθαι· ἀλλὰ πολὺ μᾶλλον ἀπὸ τοῦ πάντα τὰ καλὰ εἰδέναι, ἀπὸ τούτου ὑπὸ τοῦ νομοθέτου "Αιδης ἐκλήμ’θη-οὕτω καλούς τινας, ὡς ἔοικεν, ἐπίσταται λόγους λέγειν ὁ "Αιδης, καὶ ἔστιν ὥς γε ἐκ τοῦ λόγου τούτου ὁ θεὸς οὗτος τέλεος σοφιστής τε καί μέγας εὐεργέτης τῶν παρ ̓ αὐτῷ, ὅς γε καὶ τοῖς ἐνθάδε τοσαῦτα ἀγαθὰ ἀνίησιν· οὕτω πολλὰ αὐτῷ τὰ περιόντα ἐκεῖ ἐστί, καὶ τὸν Πλούτωνα ἀπὸ τούτου ἔσχε τὸ ὄνομα: whence he infers that the manes of the just should be unwilling to return again to earth. Opposed to this ᾅδης φωτεινὸς, or habitation of the good, after death, was the ᾅδης σκοτεινὸς or ζωφερὸς, the abode of the impious. Orpheus is said to have introduced this figment first, from Egypt into Greece. See infr. c. 13. sub. fin. εἰσὶ γὰρ δή φ. οἱ. π.τ. τ.
Τῶν λόγων.] Aug. Int. τοῦ λόγου, adopted by Ficinus; but the former is the more correct. Cf. infr. καὶ γὰρ οἱ λόγοι τοιοῦτοι τινες ἦσαν, and extr. τίνες, φῂς, ἦσαν οἱ λόγοι.
Ως ἀδεῶς.] For ὅτι οὕτως ἀδεῶς. Cf. Criton. c. 1. Ως ἡδέως. n.-Γενναίως; Xen. Apol. 33. ἐπεδείξατο δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς τὴν ῥώμην---οὐδὲ πρὸς τὸν θάνατον ἐμαλακίσατο, ἀλλ ̓ ἱλαρῶς, καὶ προσεδέχετο αὐτὸν, καὶ ἐπετελέσατο.—Παρίστασθαι is frequently used by itself, in reference to the thoughts which arise from present cir
*Ανευ θείας μοίρας.] Sine consilio et voluntate deorum qui ei consulerent. STALL, because of ἀλλὰ κἀκεῖσε ἀφ. εὖ πράξειν seq. Cf. Plutarch. ii. p. 499. Β. ἀποθνήσκοντα δὲ αὐτὸν
ἐλεεινὸν εἰσῄει, ὡς εἰκὸς ἂν δόξειεν εἶναι παρόντι πένθει· οὔτε αὖ ἡδονὴ ὡς ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ ἡμῶν ὄντων, ὥς περ εἰώθειμεν· καὶ γὰρ οἱ λόγοι τοιοῦτοί τινες ἦσαν ἀλλ ̓ ἀτεχνῶς ἄτοπόν τί μοι πάθος παρῆν καί τις ἀήθης κρᾶσις ἀπό τε τῆς ἡδονῆς συγκεκραμένη ὁμοῦ καὶ τῆς λύπης, ἐνθυμουμένω ὅτι αὐτίκα ἐκεῖνος ἔμελλε τελευτᾷν. καὶ πάντες οἱ παρόντες σχεδόν τι οὕτω διεκείμεθα, ὁτὲ μὲν γελῶντες, ἐνίοτε δὲ δακρύοντες, εἷς δὲ ἡμῶν καὶ διαφερόντως, ̓Απολλόδωρος οἶσθα γάρ που τὸν ἄνδρα καὶ τὸν τρόπον αὐτοῦ. ΕΧ. Πῶς γὰρ οὔ;
ΦΑΙΔ. Ἐκεῖνός τε τοίνυν παντάπασιν οὕτως εἶχε, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔγωγε ἐτεταράγμην καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι.
ΕΧ. Ἔτυχον δέ, ὦ Φαίδων τίνες, παραγενόμε
'Οτὲ μὲν γελ. ἐνίοτε δὲ δακ.] These participles are added in explanation of οὕτω preced. otherwise the construction should be οὕτω διακείμεθα· οτὲ μὲν ἐγελῶμεν, ἐνίοτε δὲ ἐδακρύομεν. [as Lys. p. 779. ὑμεῖς δὲ οὕτω διετέθητε τοὺς μὲν φεύγοντας κατεδέξασθε, &c.] Compare with the text as supr. Sophocl. Cd. Τyr. 10. τίνι τρόπῳ καθέστατε ; Δείσαντες, ἣ στέρξαντες; Χenoph. Anab. iv. 1. 4. τὴν δὲ—ἐμβολὴν ὧδε ποιοῦνται, ἅμα μὲν λαθεῖν πειρώμενοι ἅμα δὲ φθάσαι, &c. HEIND.
̓Απολλόδωρος.] A zealous and at
Ὡς ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ ἡμῶν ὄντων.] i. e. As when we were engaged in our philo-tached friend of Socrates; ἐπιθυμητὴς sophical studies.--ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εἶναι, in philosophia versari, eadem occupari, quævere de locis philosophicis. KORNER. Cf. Sophocl. (Ed. Tyr. 570. τότ ̓ οὖν ὁ μάντις ἦν ἐν τῇ τέχνη ; Xenoph. Cyrop. iv. 3. 23. οἱ μὲν δὴ ἐν τούτοις τοῖς λόγοις ἦσαν. Maxim. Τyr. p. 396. i. ed. Lips. τοὺς δὲ ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ, καὶ πανυ ἂν τις μέμψαιτο.—
Τοιοῦτοι τινες.] i. e. Partaking of the character of their previous and customary discussions.
“Ατοπον.] See in Crit. c. 2. extr. Κρᾶσις ἀπὸ τε τῆς ἡδ.] See infr. c. 3. Ως ἄτοπον. Cf. Liban. Epist. lxiii. κρᾶσις ἔχει μέ τις ἡδονῆς καὶ
ἰσχυρῶς αὐτοῦ, Xen. Apolog. c. 28. He was morose in temper, and gloomy in disposition, whence in Sympos. c. 2. ΕΤΑΙ. ̓Αεὶ ὅμοιος εἶ, ὦ ̓Απολλόδωρε ἀεὶ γὰρ σαυτόν τε κακηγορεῖς καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους, καὶ δοκεῖς μοι ἀτεχνῶς πάντας ἀθλίους ἡγεῖσθαι πλὴν Σωκράτους, ἀπὸ σαυτοῦ ἀρξάμενος. καὶ ὁπόθεν ποτὲ ταύτην τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν ἔλαβες τὸ μανικὸς [nimius in laudando. Asr.] καλεῖσθαι, οὐκ οἶδα ἔγωγε' ἐν μὲν γὰρ τοῖς λόγοις ἀεὶ τοιοῦτος εἶ· σαυτῷ τε καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀγριαίνεις πλὴν Σωκράτους—and possessed of but little strength of mind: see infr. c. 66. a med. Ælian, V. H. i. 16. mentions, as an instance of his
ΦΑΙΔ. Οὗτός τε δὴ ὁ ̓Απολλόδωρος τῶν ἐπιχωρίων παρῆν καὶ Κριτόβουλος καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ Κρίτων, καὶ ἔτι Ἑρμογένης καὶ Ἐπιγένης καὶ Αἰσχίνης καὶ ̓Αντισθένης. ἦν δὲ καὶ Κτήσιππος ὁ Παιανιεὺς καὶ Μενέξενος καὶ ἄλλοι τινὲς των ἐπιχωρίων· Πλάτων δέ, οἶμαι, ἠσθένει.
simplicity, his having brought with him into the prison a tunic and splendid cloak, in which Socrates was to be dressed before his death.
Καὶ Κριτόβουλος.] Crito, who gave name to the preceding dialogue, had four sons, Critobulus, Hermogenes, Epigenes, and Ctesippus. Laert. ii. 121. But the Hermogenes mentioned supr. appears to have been the son of Hipponicus, and brother of Callias. Cratyl. c. 2. ΣΩ. Ω παῖ Ἱππονίκου, Ερμόγενες, &c. and Epigenes to have been the same as in Apolog. Socr. c. 22. a med. the son of Antiphon. Of Eschines, Diog. Laertius writes, iii. 37. Αὐτοῦ δὲ (Αἰσχίνου) Πλάτων οὐδαμόθι τῶν ἑαυτοῦ συγγραμμάτων μνήμην πεποίηται, ὅτι μὴ ἐν τῷ περὶ ψυχῆς, καὶ ̓Απολογίᾳ. c. 22. He had lived in great poverty for many years at Athens, as an attached disciple and friend of Socrates, when he resolved to visit the court of Dionysius, who was, or affected to be, a patron of philosophers. He was introduced by Aristippus, and liberally rewarded for his Socratic dialogues. He remained in Sicily until the expulsion of the tyrant, and then returned to Athens, where he gave instructions in philosophy, for payment, in private, as he could not publicly compete with Plato or Aristippus. He then, to enlarge his means, took up oratory, and appeared as the rival of Demosthenes. Antisthenes was born at Athens, about the ninetieth Olympiad, and served, in his youth, with considerable distinction, particularly at the battle of Tanagra. He first directed his attention to rhetoric, in which he was instructed by the sophist Gorgias; but abandoned a pursuit so unsatisfactory, for the more important study of moral and intellectual philosophy. He became a disciple of Socrates, and, in imitation of his master, sacrificed everything to the attainment of
After the death of Socrates, while Plato and the rest of his disciples were forming schools, Antisthenes selected for his a place of public exercise without the city, near the Lyceum, called Κυνόσαργες, the temple of the white or swift dog; which, when Diomus was sacrificing to Hercules, seized upon part of the victim, whence the name of the place. Some writers derive from hence the name of the sect Κυνικοὶ, which Antisthenes founded here, others, and the more numerous, ascribe their title to the surname of their master, Κύων, which he obtained in consequence of the harshness and severity of his censures upon the manners of the age.—Ctesippus; Euthydem. c. 5. νεανίσκος τις Παιανιεύς, μάλα καλός τε κἀγαθὸς τὴν φύσιν ὅσον μέν, ὑβριστὴς δὲ διὰ τὸ νέος εἶναι. Cf. Lysid. p. 206. 207. seq.-Menexenus, son of Demophon, was born of a noble family, and applied himself, early in life, to the study of philosophy. He was a follower of Ctesippus, whence they are mentioned together here, as in Lysid. locc. citt. One of the dialogues of Plato, on the subject of the Athenians who died for their country in battle, is inscribed with his name, Μενέξενος, ἢ ̓Επιτάφιος, ἠθικός.
Πλάτων — ἠσθένει.] Forster eonjectures that Plato would have it inferred from hence, that his illness was occasioned by his grief for the impending death of his valued master. Athenæus, having recounted the several arguments in proof of the misunderstanding which was said to have existed between Plato and Xenophon, brings forward, in further confirmation, the passage in the text, where the name of the latter is omitted in the enumeration of those who had assembled to pay the last tribute of affection and respect to their venerable instructor and friend;
ΕΧ. Ξένοι δέ τινες παρῆσαν ;
ΦΑΙΔ. Ναί, Σιμμίας τέ γε ὁ Θηβαῖος καὶ Κέβης καὶ Φαιδώνδης, καὶ Μεγαρόθεν Εὐκλείδης τε καὶ Τερψίων.
ΕΧ. Τί δαί; ̓Αρίστιππος καὶ Κλεόμβροτος παρεγένοντο ;
books were the writings of Timæus, the Locrian, one of the Italic school, upon which Plato formed the dialogue which bears his name. Philolaus having interfered in civil affairs, fell a sacrifice subsequently to political jealousy. Enfield, Philosophy, B. ii. c. 12. s. 2. Phædon
1. xi. c. 15. p. 505. Káv тy πeрi v χῆς ὁ Πλάτων καταλεγόμενος ἕκαστον τῶν παρατυχόντων οὐδὲ κατὰ μικρὸν τοῦ Ξενοφῶντος μέμνηται. Neither indeed could Plato have made any mention of Xenophon, who had departed into Asia a year before the death of Socrates; ivi potipų irει rñs Ew-des, also a Theban v. Rhunk. ad XeKрάTOVÇ TEλεUTS. Laert. ii. 55.Whence it is not likely that it ever occurred to Plato to explain the cause of his absence, and with regard to any jealousy which was reported to have existed between them, Xenophon was too far beneath his cotemporary to have ever been considered in the light of a rival. HEIND. So V. Cousin: "Je ne crois pas inutile de répéter que ce n'est aucunement par envie que Platon ne parle pas ici de Xénophon, ou qu'il ne remarque pas qu'il était absens pour une cause sérieuse. Il ne dit pas que Xénophon etait alors à la guerre, parceque c'etait une chose assez connue de son temps, et qu'il ne pouvait soupçonner qu'on lui ferait, cinq siècles plus tard (Athénée, liv. xi. 15), l'accusation de jalousie contre Xénophon. Heindorf est le premier qui se soit élevé contre la pretendue inimitié de ces deux grands hommes. Ils differaient sans doute ; mais supposer qu'ils aient écrit pour se décrier, ou pour se distinguer l'un de l'autre, comme on l'a dit souvent, c'est une puérilité dont il n'existe aucune preuve."
Σιμμίας τέ-καὶ Κέβης.] Disciples of Philolaus, infr. c. 5. a med. a native of Crotona, who lived subsequently in Heraclea. He was a disciple of Archytas, a Pythagorean philosopher of Tarentum, and cotemporary with Plato, to whom he sold the written records of the Pythagorean system, contrary to the express oath of the society, that they would keep secret the mysteries of their sect. It is probable that among these
noph. Mem. i. 2. 48.-Euclides of Megara, founder of the Megaric sect, called the Eristic, from its contentious character, devoted himself to the study of philosophy in early life, and removed from Megara to Athens, for the purpose of joining the disciples of Socrates. He displeased Socrates by engaging in forensic disputes, to which he was led by an immoderate passion for controversy, and returned to Megara, where he became the head of a school, in which his chief occupation was to teach the art of disputation. He is not to be confounded with the mathematician, who flourished at a later period under Ptolemy Lagus, and died in the 123rd Olympiad. Enf. Phil. ii. c. 6. Of Terpsion nothing is known, further than that he is one of the speakers in Plato's dialogue, entitled Theætetus. Aristippus was the wellknown founder of the Cyrenaic sect, which was so called from his native city, Cyrene, in Africa. It is not clear whether Cleombrotus, mentioned supr., was the native of Ambracia, of the same name, who furnished the subject for the celebrated epigram of Callimachus, to the effect that Cleombrotus of Ambracia, having paid his last respects to the sun, threw himself headlong from the top of a tower, not that he had done anything worthy of death, but had only read Plato's treatise on the immortality of the soul, and courted, by self-destruction, the death which he felt convinced to be the passage to a happier life. Callim. Epigr. xxiv. Tuscul. i. 34. Some suppose that he was not the one alluded
ΦΑΙΔ. Οὐ δῆτα ̇ ἐν Αἰγίνῃ γὰρ ἐλέγοντο εἶναι.
ΦΑΙΔ. Σχηδόν τι οἶμαι τούτους παραγενέσθαι.
§. 3. ΦΑΙΔ. Ἐγώ σοι ἐξ ἀρχῆς πάντα πειράσομαι διηγήσασθαι. ἀεὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ τὰς πρόσθεν ἡμέρας εἰώθειμεν φοιτᾷν καὶ ἐγὼ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι παρὰ τὸν Σωκράτη, συλλεγόμενοι ἕωθεν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἡ δίκη ἐγένετο· πλησίον γὰρ ἦν τοῦ δεσμωτηρίου. Περιεμένομεν οὖν ἑκάστοτε ἕως ἀνοιχθείη τὸ δεσμωτήριον, διατρίβοντες μετ ̓ ἀλλήλων· ἀνεῴγνυτο γὰρ οὐ πρῴ. ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἀνοιχθείη, εἰσῇμεν παρὰ τὸν Σωκράτη καὶ τὰ πολλὰ διημερεύ‐ ομεν μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ. καὶ δὴ καὶ τότε πρωϊαίτερον ξυνελέγημεν. τῇ γὰρ προτεραίᾳ ἡμέρᾳ ἐπειδὴ ἐξήλθομεν ἐκ τοῦ δεσμωτηρίου ἑσπέρας, ἐπυθόμεθα ὅτι τὸ πλοῖ ον ἐκ Δήλου ἀφιγμένον εἴη παρηγγειλαμεν οὖν ἀλλήλοις ἥκειν ὡς πρωϊαίτατα εἰς τὸ εἰωθός. καὶ ἥκο
to in the text, but there is nothing clearly known of any other friend of Socrates of this name.
'Ev Aiyivg.] It is conjectured, with great probability, that Plato intends covertly to rebuke Aristippus and Cleombrotus for their neglect of Socrates, in remaining to indulge their luxurious and effeminate pleasures at Ægina, from
which they might have sailed with ease
to Athens, a distance of but two or three
and twenty miles: Diog. Laert. iii. 36. εἶχε δὲ φιλέχθρως ὁ Πλάτων καὶ πρὸς ̓Αρίστιππον· ἐν γοῦν τῷ περὶ ψυχῆς διαβάλλων αὐτὸν φησὶν, ὅτι οὐ παρεγένετο Σωκράτει τελευτῶντι, ἀλλ ̓ ἐν Αιγίνῃ ἦν καὶ σύνεγγυς. Athenæus, xii. p. 544. D. διέτριβεν δ ̓ ὁ ̓Αρίστιππος τὰ πολλὰ ἐν Αἰγίνῃ τρυφῶν. Aristippus annoyed Socrates by his passion for dress and extravagant habits, and offended his friends by the freedom of his manners, so much so, that he withdrew from Athens to the island of Egina, and there met with the celebrated Lais, whom he brought on with him to Corinth. Cf. Horat. Sat. ii. 3. 99.
Ep. i. 17. 23.
§. 3. Εωθεν.] Suid. and Phavor. i. q. Πρωΐθεν, h. e. diluculo, prima aurora, sub aurora, ante lucem. FISCH.
Εως ἀνοιχθείη.] If an action has been frequently repeated in times past, wg has the opt. without av. Matthiæ Gr. s. 522. 1.
Διατρίβοντες μετ ̓ ἀλλήλων.] i. e. διαλεγόμενοι πρὸς ἡμᾶς αὐτούς, as c. 65. infr. init.- ̓Ανεῴγνυτο; the Attic form of the common impf. ἠνοίγετο. Matthiæ Gr. s. 168. Obs. 1.
̓Επειδὴ δὲ ἀνοιχθείη.] The optative is put with the particles ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε, ὁπότε, when the discourse is concerning a past action, which, however, was not limited to a precise point of time, but was repeated by several persons, or in several places ; SO supr. περιεμένομεν οὖν ἑκάστοτε, ἕως ἀνοιχθείη τὸ δεσμ ἐπειδη. δὲ ἀνοιχ. εἰσῆμεν παρὰ τὸν Σ. Matthiæ Gr. s. 521.
Διημερεύομεν.] Αttic. Anon. ap. Villoison. Anec. Gree. p. 80. t. ii. διημερεύει, ἀντὶ τοῦ πᾶσαν τὴν ἡμέραν