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and the train of Trojan matrons went up to the fane of Minerva :νηὸν ἵκανον ̓Αθήνης, ἐν πόλει ἄκρη.
and the royal palaces stood:
'Εγγύθι τε Πριάμοιο καὶ "Εκτορος, ἐν πόλει ἄκρη.
At the extreme corner of the hill you come to a ledge of rock, probably near 400 feet in direct ascent from the ground beneath, which would have exactly served for the proposal to throw down the Wooden Horse :
Η κατὰ πετράων βαλέειν ἐρύσαντας ἐπ' ἄκρας.†
0. 308. Odyss.
The whole precinct of this upper town is, indeed, now completely overgrown with brushwood, as correctly described by Lucan :
Yet the well-known words that immediately follow are not wholly accurate :
the ground seems to have been levelled purposely; most distinct lines of a large surrounding wall can be traced; in one spot we counted five tiers of very big stones still standing; there are great heaps of the same kind of stones on the slope immediately below, where the wall appeared to have tumbled down; there are numerous lines of foundations within, which would have served for streets and houses; and all over both the higher hill of the citadel and the lower hill of the city, there are innumerable stones which might have made parts of buildings, and which altogether cease with the probable limits of the town.
'Epißúλaka, most fertile.
This epithet, of course, must belong to the district or plain, the Troad. As to many portions of it, the character is eminently true to this day, as, I trust, my friend Mr. Calvert will find the case on his farm, to his well-deserved profit.
"Such general epithets as ursixtov, well-walled, tükrμívny, well-built, tivatoμivny, well-adapted for habitation, supváyviar, wide-streeted, I cer
"Soon as to Ilion's topmost tower they come,
To plunge it headlong in the whelming wave.'-POPE.
§ "All rude, all waste and desolate is laid,
And e'en the ruin'd Ruins are decay'd.'-Rowe.
tainly cannot exclusively claim-content that they do not present one clashing attribute. I must, however, assert my hold upon
'Eparty, desirable, lovely.
For strikingly, and to any one who has coasted the uniform shore of the Hellespont, and crossed the tame low plain of the Troad, unexpectedly lovely is this site of Troy, if Troy it was. I could give any Cumberland borderer the best notion of it, by telling him that it wonderfully resembles the view from the point of the hill just outside the Roman camp at Burdoswald: both have that series of steep conical hills, with rock enough for wildness, and verdure enough for softness; both have that bright trail of a river creeping in and out with the most continuous indentations; the Simois has, in summer at least, more silvery shelves of sand; on the steep banks still graze the sheep of the breed of Ida, tended by shepherds perhaps not precisely in Phrygian caps, but with the most genuine crooks; above all, to quote again from the same passage in Lucan,
"nullum est sine nomine saxum;'
and the reputed tomb of Hector, placed where, from the account in the Iliad, it might have been expected, crowns the glorious summit. In the descent, it is very easy to assign the quarter for the pivòs, or hill of wild fig-trees : Λαὸν δὲ στῆσον παρ' ἐρινεὸν ἔνθα μάλιστα
*Αμβατός ἐστι πόλις, καὶ ἐπίδρομον ἔπλετο τεῖχος. †
"From this comparison of the epithets contained in the Iliad with the surviving appearances of the spot-from the proved fact of a very considerable city having existed here-from its commanding site, its breezy exposure, its neighbourhood to the plain, its lovely landscape, its distance from the requisite objects-from all these essential conditions meeting and harmonizing here, I should have been quite prepared to infer that it is the place which the writer or writers of the Homeric poems (I hope that I express myself guardedly enough) intended for Troy. Strong additional confirmation appears to me supplied by the relative position of the large barrow which has been supposed to be the tomb of Esetes, that midway post between the city and the ships from which Polites reconnoitred the Grecian armament:—
Ὃς Τρώων σκοπὸς ἕζε, ποδωκείῃσι πεποιθὼς,
* "Each rock, and every tree, recording tales adorn.'-RowE.
Where yon wild fig-trees join the walls of Troy.'-POPE.
"Who from Esetes' tomb observed the foes,
High on the mound; from whence in prospect lay
The fields, the tents, the navy, and the bay.'-POPE.
This mound, precisely where it ought to be, commanding the whole shore, and exposing a person stationed there to no risk of being cut off from the town, still meets your eye, wherever you turn, throughout the whole extent of the plain. The other barrows on the long stretch of shore commonly assigned to Antilochus, Achilles, Patroclus, and Ajax, though they might not have been good for much as insulated or unsupported testimony, yet in their adaptation to tradition, and in the continuity of the tradition, are not without their importance, especially in fixing the position of the Grecian fleet. The crowning proof, however, of this whole undying geography, is the position of the sources of the Scamander. What are the circumstances, as we know them from the poem? Hector had made his stand at the Scæan gates, obviously the usual means of access to the city from the plain; at the approach of Achilles, seized with sudden panic, he flies; the other pursues; they pass by the watch-tower, and hill of wild fig-trees, and, still under the wall, across the high-road, and then come to the springs of the Scamander, which are thus described :
Κρουνὼ δ ̓ ἵκανον καλλιῤῥώω, ἔνθα δὲ πηγαὶ
Η μὲν γάρ θ ̓ ὕδατι λιαρῷ ῥέει, ἀμφὶ δὲ καπνὸς
Τὸ πρὶν ἐπ' εἰρήνης, πρὶν ἐλθειν υἷας ̓Αχαιῶν.*
"Now for the present reality. At the bottom of the slope, not far from the necessary position of the Scaan gates, the hill of wild fig-trees, and the high road, amidst a tuft of verdure formed by willows, poplars, and the festoons of the wild vine, among some smooth layers of rock, and one or two slabs of marble, well out three or four springs of most transparent water, one
"Next by Scamander's double source they bound,
Where two famed fountains burst the parted ground;
Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece)
Wash'd their fair garments in the days of peace.'-Pope.
of which is of warmer temperature than the others, and in winter emits the appearance of smoke or vapour. From this most embowered spot, between flowery banks,
λειμῶνι Σκαμανδρίῳ ἀνθεμόεντ.* Β. 467. the narrow silver rivulet proceeds to the plain, and to the clear basins of its source the women of the modern village still descend to wash their linen.
"It does then, indeed, appear to me, that the whole case is irresistible for the hill of Bounar Bachi being the Ilion of the Iliad; and I cannot help thinking that if Mr. Grote, always clear, cool, and logical, even when most sceptical, had visited these scenes himself, he would have hesitated to affirm that there is every reason for presuming that the Ilium visited by Xerxes and Alexander was really the holy Ilium present to the mind of Homer.' It has been no part of my present purpose to establish the further and distinct proposition that the Iliad is real history-so roundly denied by Bryant-so candidly questioned by Grote; but a circumstance has been brought to light, almost contemporaneously with my visit, which I do not allege as conveying any positive proof of an inference, to which I conceive, however, that it may plausibly point; but if that inference could be made good, it would establish not merely the identity of the poetical site, but the authenticity of the actual history. Since Mr. Calvert has come into his recent possession of his Troad farm, he has opened a mound which he found upon it, and within which, at some depth below the surface, he has discovered a layer of calcined human bones, about six feet in depth and thirty feet in diameter, with one skeleton at the bottom, and below these a large quantity of ashes. The part where the bones are, is surrounded by the remains of a wall of stones without cement. Might not these, possibly, have been the bones of the Trojans burned during the truce obtained by Priam in the seventh book of the Iliad?
. . οἱ δὲ σιωπῇ
Νεκροὺς πυρκαϊῆς ἐπενήνεον, ἀχνύμενοι κῆρ.
̓Εν δὲ πυρὶ πρήσαντες ἔβαν προτὶ "Ιλιον ἱρήν. † Η. 427. The spot, between two and three miles from Troy, would be entirely suitable; not within, or just in front of the walls, like Hector, the real Astyanax, or Lord of the City, more so than either his father or his son, with a lordly pile of stones above him; but the crowd of dead had their tomb at a convenient distance the return to the town of the mourners being expressly mentioned; and the absence of cement in the inclosing wall might indicate a hurried construction, such as was to be expected from men who had to fight on the morrow."-Lord Carlisle's Diary in Turkish and Greek Waters.
#66 'Scamander's flowery side.'
With silent haste
The bodies decent on their piles were placed;
The following poetical and historic view of the chief scenes of interest in Yorkshire, taken by Lord Morpeth at the outset of his public career, was first published in 1832, as the Address of the
Be not our title scorned-if wide domain,
If smiling nature, if triumphant art,
If high tradition vindicate the strain,
Yorkshire may claim, and will maintain her part.
List, doubting jester-if there be that jest
Go where the Don's young waters brightly glide,
Then onward Sheffield's busier haunts survey,
Pass not the lordly pile of Wentworth's line,
To patriot worth and social friendship dear;†
Where Wakefield rears her fair and fretted spire,
* The Dragon of Wantley is the subject of a well-known legend.
† A mausoleum is erected in Wentworth Park to the memory of the Marquis of Rockingham, containing the busts of his principal associates and friends.
Viscountess Milton, obiit 1830.
§ A chapel of "small and delicate proportion," upon the bridge of Wakefield, still