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sary consequence of this is, that the working classes must obtain better wages; they are better fed, better clothed, better lodged; they can get better education for their children; and most gratifying it is to me to find that in Ulster, or, I believe, to speak with more strict accuracy, in the two counties of Down and Armagh, one-sixth of the population is in attendance in the primary schools-either those under the National Education Board, or under the Church Education Society-which is an average equal to that of Prussia, where the attendance of the children is compelled by law. I referred before to the diminution of physical suffering. Now, what is the case with respect to the direct expenditure for the relief of the poor all over Ireland? The fund from which it is drawn has, there is no doubt, largely increased. The value of property rated to the relief of the poor in 1851 was £11,614,000. In 1860 it had increased nearly a million-it was £12,280,000. Now, with this larger amount of funds for the purpose of drawing upon, I find that the total expenditure of the medical as well as ordinary poor law relief in 1851 amounted to £1,150,000. In 1860 it had fallen to £558,000, being less than half what it was ten years ago. And, lastly, with respect to crime, to which I also referred, it appears that those specially reported to head-quarters in 1850 amounted to 10,639; in 1860 they had fallen to 3,531. Now, my Lords and Gentlemen, it seems to me that this constitutes a summary of which Ireland may be justly proud. Not indolently proud. I would advise her to be grateful for the past, and alert and emulous for the future. There are many here, some of whom will follow me to-night, who can speak with far greater knowledge and authority of the characteristic features of the Show which we have witnessed in the Show-yard for these two days. They will be able to tell you of any shortcomings-if shortcomings there are -and of those excellencies which I feel no doubt in my own mind are great and striking. If the condition and prosperity of agriculture in Ireland suggest any prominent point of advice, in my judgment it would be, I would say to you, to take care of your green crops, of your provision of winter food for cattle, so that you may be supplied with a greater quantity of manure than is now possessed in many districts, which is an indispensable groundwork of increased tillage; and I think it may be worthy of some consideration whether planting might not be resorted to with advantage in some of the more hilly and exposed districts of this country for the shelter of cattle. However,

Gentlemen, I feel most thankful that the genius of Ireland is becoming every day more and more awake to the manifold and multifarious refinements and claims of her agriculture; and most pleasing indeed, in one point of view, though painful to excess in another, is the contrast which is presented by such a sight as the Show-yard now open in Belfast with the scenes which are being enacted among that great people which has so many common ties and common interests with us across the western waters. Here, Gentlemen, we scan an area itself connected with all the operations of busy and extended commerce now spread before our gaze the representative specimens of every form of peaceful agriculture the sleek herds and fleecy flocks, the iron implements and lustrous damasks; there, Gentlemen, we read of nothing but masked batteries, and the angry glare of bayonets, and the fierce charge and the panic rout. May the time soon come which will enable us and other friendly well-wishers-as I am sure in our hearts we all are of that great country-will enable us and others to interpose our friendly mediation, if (which would be far better) they do not themselves compose their sad and guilty quarrels. But, however that may be, I trust, Gentlemen, that we at least, with humble and hopeful hearts, may long preserve the inestimable blessings we enjoy, and strive to transmit them bright and undimmed to the coming generations.


[AUGUST 8TH, 1861.]

THE REV. WILLIAM BRUCE, Chairman of the Society, having

read an Address,



I return you my very sincere thanks for so kindly welcoming me upon this my second visit to these delightful Gardens. In truth, they are very well worthy to be revisited. It is true that upon this day they are adorned with beauties and attractions from other portions of the country beyond their own native ones. But I feel sure that all whom I

address will agree with me, that the Committee of the Royal Belfast Horticultural Society deserve much praise for having introduced among the busy operations of this flourishing commercial community so refined a taste for flowers, whether to adorn the lordly conservatory or bring beauty and variety to the humblest cottage door. And now, Ladies and Gentlemen, I will, with the permission of those whom I am glad to see assembled here, perform a ceremony which I make bold to think will meet with universal approbation. I propose to confer the honour of Knighthood upon the Mayor of Belfast. I do this upon two groundsthe first, to pay a mark of respect and consideration to the important town of Belfast, and to the enterprising and energetic community of which it is the head and representative. My other reason applies to him, not in his representative, but in his individual capacity—it is because I understand that the high character he bears among his fellowcitizens, and his life of active practical benevolence, will confer more honour upon the order he is about to enter, than he will receive from it. The EARL OF CARLISLE, addressing the Mayor, said-Will you kindly kneel down, Mr. Mayor ?

The MAYOR, in compliance with the command, knelt down. The EARL OF CARLISLE, placing the sword upon his shoulder, said



[AUGUST 6TH, 1862.]



"The Health of the Earl of Carlisle, and Prosperity to Ireland."



I return very sincere thanks to you for the honour you have done me in drinking my health with such kindness. I always feel on these oc

casions that I had better leave the details connected with the meeting which we are holding to those who must be more competent than myself from their pursuits and knowledge to give their weighty authority concerning them. I believe in the Show of this year there is very much to approve and to applaud, except indeed in the point of weather. I believe, too, that with respect to the number of cattle exhibited, a county with which I am connected, the county of Yorkshire, may have had some share in diminishing the numbers exhibited on this occasion, the Show in that county, which has great attractions for all the North of England, being held in this very week. There can be no doubt that in point of quality there has been a most valuable exhibition of stock; and I believe it will be admitted on all sides that most just praise is due to the produce of your dairy farms, and your sheepfolds too. During all my earlier visits to the meetings of the Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland I have been enabled to use the almost unqualified language of congratulation and hopefulness. Seasons had been favourable, produce had been on the increase, and crime was greatly diminished. The Ireland of the present seems scarcely to be the same as the Ireland of the past, and there were hardly any limits to the glowing anticipations we might form respecting the Ireland of the future. In many points on this occasion I am compelled to take a soberer and more chastened view, especially with reference to one topic, which I cannot omit to mention, but having done which, I will at once dismiss-both because it is the most painful of all, and one which has only an indirect connexion with the object of the present meeting. I allude to the reappearance of crime. Old crimes, which we had fondly flattered ourselves had been nearly extinguished and well nigh forgotten, have shown their horrid front again amongst our rural population. Even the soil of this county has been reddened with blood, though in this county it has been happily avenged-perhaps "happily" was not the word to useI will say rightfully avenged. This has been brought about, under God, by the fearless and conscientious discharge of their duties by all persons concerned by counsel, by judges, by jurors, by the magistracy, and by the constabulary. In mentioning the last body, I must take this opportunity to say that I do not think that on all occasions they have been quite fairly treated. I admit that there may be modifications which it would be right to introduce, and to acknowledge the impossibility of their doing all that sometimes seems to be required of them-seeing


into the inside of rooms at a great distance from them, and receiving information which nobody will give them; but knowing as I do how much they daily do and dare for the maintenance of order and for the safety of life, I must consider that some of the attacks which are occasionally levelled against them are scarcely just or generous. I need not point out to you that agrarian crime, if suffered to remain unchecked, would prove a worse enemy to the progress of agriculture even in its strict and narrower sense, than either blight, or drought, or rain, or storm, or the worst enmity of the seasons. Of the enmity of the seasons there has no doubt been of late no lack. From the year 1852 to 1858 there have been in Ireland a series of remarkably favourable Since 1858 we have suffered from a series entirely the reverse. In 1859 we suffered from the drought. In 1860-61, and up to the 6th of August, 1862, we are suffering from deluge. I might call even as a witness into court that broad and noble stream which flows within this town, so formed by nature to adorn, defend, and enrich the district which it waters, but which of late years has certainly given somewhat of an overplus of its wealth of moisture. Now, to these fluctuations of the seasons we have always been liable in Ireland, and always, I fear, must be. They are mainly owing to the geographical position of the country, which we cannot hope to shift or change. I am aware that fault has been found with me once and again for dwelling upon the superior adaptation of the country to purposes of pasture, and the rearing of cattle, and so seeming by implication to discourage tillage and the growth of crops. Now, no one could refuse to give to tillage and the growth of crops their proper opportunity and their proper sphere; but surely it is the part of a prudent man to take things as they are, and to follow the indisputable law of nature. It is undoubtedly true that for a late season or two there has been a material falling-off in what may be termed the general agricultural income of the country; but it is as true, and can be proved from authentic documents, that this decrease has fallen upon tillage and crops, whereas the value of stock has actually increased. I am sure you will excuse me for pointing your attention to this subject, which does seem to me entitled to your most serious attention; and it appears to me to establish incontrovertibly that in Ireland stock is the most steady and permanent part of rural income. I think we should be quite wrong to consider that the increase of cattle necessarily leads to the decrease of tillage. Modern husbandry has introduced stall

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