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"Creator." And in Fragm. 67. "Be there two worlds, or "be there twenty, the fame God is the God of all; and, where. ❝ ever we are, we are equally in his power."


Ver. 3. Plac'd on this ifthmus of a middle state;
A being darkly wife, and rudely great.

This is a pleafing variation from the fimilitude of his preceptor; which, however, might probably fuggeft the former claufe of the fecond verfe. "This is the condition of humanity. We are placed

as it were, in an intellectual twilight, where we difcover but few "things clearly, and none entirely; and yet see juft enough to "tempt us with the hope of making better and more discoveries." Bolingbroke's Letters to Pope.

Ver. 23. Go, foar with Plato to th' empyreal sphere,

To the first good, first perfect, and first fair.

It was the opinion of Plato and his followers, that every thing excellent or great in man and the univerfe, and even the universe itself, were but adumbrations of the perfect archetypes of excellence, previously exifting in the divine mind, and emanations from it. The reader will find fome pleasing illuftrations of this doctrine in Spencer's Hymn to Heavenlie Beauty, and in the eighteenth fong of Drummond's Poems, part ii. but the paffages are too long for quotation in this place. This notion will reflect light on Milton's Par. Loft, vii. 557. where the expreffion derives it's colouring from that Platonic theory:

Thence to behold this new created world,

Th' addition of his empire; how it show'd

In profpect from his throne, how good, how fair:
Anfwering his great idea.



Ver. 45. While man exclaims, " See all things for my
See man for mine!" exclaims a pamper'd goofe.

Cowley, in his Plagues of Egypt, stanza i.

All creatures the Creator faid were thine:

No creature but might fince fay, "Man is mine !”

a paffage

a paffage, which our poet might have in view; as. well as Gay, in fable 49. part i. where the fentiment itself is happily illuftrated throughout :

When with huge figs the branches bend,
When clusters from the vine depend,
The Snail looks round on flow'r and tree,

And cries," All these were made for me!"

"The hypothesis, that affumes the world made for man, and man "folely to be happy, is not founded in reason, and is contradicted "by experience." Bolingbroke, Fragm. 43.

Ver. 112. On mutual wants built mutual happinefs."

"We are defigned to be focial, not folitary creatures. Mutual "wants unite us: and natural benevolence and political order, on "which our happiness depends, are founded in them." Bolingbroke, Fragm, 51. So Gray, very beautifully, in his unfinished Effay : "While mutual wishes, mutual woes, endear;

The focial fmile, and fympathetic tear,"

Ver. 124. They love themselves, a third time, in their race. "As our parents loved themselves in us, fo we love ourselves in our "children, and in those to whom we are most nearly related by "blood. Thus far inftinct improves felf-love. Reafon improves it "further. We love ourselves in our neighbours and in our "friends. We love ourselves in loving the political body whofe "members we are; and we love ourfelves, when we extend our "benevolence to all mankind." Bolingbroke, Fragm, 51. with `which compare below, ver. 134.

VER. 249. She, 'midst the lightning's blaze, and thunder's found,

When rock'd the mountains, and when groan'd the


She taught the weak to bend, the proud to pray,

To Pow'r unfeen, and mightier far than they.

This is exactly Lucretius, v. 1217.

Prætereà, cui non animus formidine Divûm
Contrahitur, cui non conrepunt membra pavore,
Fulminis horribili cùm plagâ torrida tellus

Contremit, et magnum percurrunt murmura cœlum?
Non populi gentefque tremunt, regesque fuperbi-?
Denique, fub pedibus tellus cùm tota vacillat,




Concuffe que cadunt urbes, dubiæque minantur;
Quid mirum, fi se temnunt mortalia fæcla,
Atque poteflates magnas mirafque relinquunt
In rebus vireis Divûm, quæ cuncta gubernent ?
What bofom fhrinks not with an awe divine,`
Whofe flesh with terrour creeps not, when the grouud,
Smit with the ftroke of thunder, flaming, shakes,
And murmurs roll through the long vault of heaven ?
Quake not whole nations with their haughty kings?
When Earth's broad surface rocks beneath our feet,
When crashing cities fall, or tottering threat,
What wonder, if frail man himself defpife;
If wond'rous powers, and vaft, to Gods he give,
To guide this univerfe with boundless fway?


Ver. 107. Why drew Marseilles' good bishop purer breath,
When Nature ficken'd, and each gale was death?

Or why fo long (in life if long can be)

Lent Heav'n a parent to the and me?


Archbishop Sheldon, and others, muft fhare in this praise of the good bishop of Marseilles ; fee Pennant's London, p. 328. and the two minifters of Tidefwell in Derbyshire; see Dr. Aikin's Environs of Manchester, p. 485. And in the former couplet our poet might profit from fome anonymous verses in Dryden's Miscellanies, vi. p. 76.

When Nature fickens, and with fainting breath

Struggles beneath the bitter pangs of death:

as the third verfe is a palpable imitation of Virgil, Æn. x. 861.
Rhoebe, diù, res fi qua diù mortalibus ulla est,

O Rhœbus, we have liv'd too long for me,
If life and long were terms that could agree.


Ver, 289. In hearts of kings, or arms of queens who lay,
How happy those to ruin, these betray!
Mark by what wretched fteps their glory grows,
From dirt and fea-weed as proud Venice rose;
In each how guilt and greatnefs equal ran,
And all that rais'd the Hero, funk the Man,


Now Europe's laurels on their brows behold,
But ftain'd with blood, or ill-exchang'd for gold.
Then fee them broke with toils, or funk in ease,
Or infamous for plunder'd provinces.

Oh wealth ill-fated! which no act of fame
E'er taught to fhine, or fanctifyed from shame!
What greater blifs attends their close of life?
Some greedy minion, or imperious wife,
The trophy'd arches, story'd halls invade,
And haunt their flumbers in the pompous fhade.
Alas! not dazzled with their noon-tide ray,
Compute the morn and ev'ning to the day;
The whole amount of that enormous fame,

A tale, that blends their glory with their shame! I have extracted the whole of this fublime invective, that the particular afpect of our fatirift on the circumftances of Marlborough's life may be more diftinctly feen amidft this general cenfure of military glories.

The fecond claufe of the first verfe, and the fecond couplet, relate to his intrigue with the Duchefs of Cleveland, for which I refer the reader to the Biographia Britannica, vol. iii. p. 563, or Ledi ard's life, pp. 18 and 19.

The third and fourth couplets have a view to his fuppofed peculation as commander in chief, and his prolongation of the war on this account, to which we must refer also the discarded variation at his first Moral Effay, ver. 86.

Triumphant leaders, at an army's head,

Hemm'd round with glories, pilfer cloth or bread:
As meanly plunder, as they bravely fought;

Now fave a people, and now fave a groat.

The fixth couplet is explained by that charge of avarice which is ufually brought against him, and which gave rife to that epigram upon the bridge in Blenheim-Park:

The fpacious arch his vaft ambition fhows;

The ftream an emblem of his bounty flows.

The application of the following lines to his Duchefs, the palace at Blenheim, and his fecond infancy, fo finely touched by Johnson in his Vanity of Human Wishes, is too obvious to need more than a fimple admonition to direct the attention of the reader.

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Ver. 17. What bleffings thy free bounty gives,

Let me not caft away;

For God is paid when Man receives :

T' enjoy is to obey.

Athenæus, in his compilations, ii. 3. quotes a paffage from Alexis which contains a pleafing fentiment of the fame complexion, as follows:

Let Fortune's fav'rites in broad sunshine live,
And God's benignity difplay to all.
Then, only then, the bounteous Donor reaps
His recompenfe, when man enjoys the boon.
The niggard and penurious, who shuts up
The ftores cœleftial with clofe-handed care,
He views difpleas'd, and soon withdraws the gift.

Ver. 49. To thee, whose temple is all space,
Whose altar, earth, sea, skies.

Lucan, ix. 578. has an admirable paffage of this kind
Eftne Dei fedes, nifi terra, et pontus, et aër,
Et cœlum, et virtus? Superos quid quærimus ultrà ?
Jupiter eft quodcunque vides, quocunque moveris.
Is there a place, that God would choose to love
Beyond this earth, the feas, yon heaven above,
And virtuous minds, the noblest throne of Jove?
Why feek we farther then? Behold around,
How all thou feeft does with the God abound;
Jove is alike in all, and always to be found.



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