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worthy of his ambition. The triumph of the moment outweighs every other consideration and he spends with a profuse liberality, what it will require years to replace. Under these circumstances it is by no means matter of surprise that the expenses of a wedding should bear no proportion to the means of the contracting parties, and that when a man expends the aggregate of his income for years on a single event, he should involve himself in debt and disgrace."*
In some parts of the country, officers of Government have held meetings with the leading men, and urged reform in marriage expenses. While such a course is highly to be commended, it is evident that advice of this character would be far more widely diffused by lessons in Reading Books. Many a thrilling tale might be told of the consequences of borrowing money to squander on marriage expenses.
2. The Encouragement given to "drones." The number of able-bodied poor in India who do nothing for their subsistence is enormous. According to the laws of Hindu society, every man possessing any means, is bound to provide for all his relatives. There is no doubt that this has its good features, and prevents a great amount of wretchedness; but it is also frequently abused. Persons who can thus obtain the necessaries of life without labour are tempted to indolence. As the Friend remarks:
"There is scarcely a married man in the country who has not some of his own or his wife's kindred dependent on his bounty. These he cannot shake off; and they will seldom drop off themselves, but will continue to draw nourishment from his labour while a single meal of rice remains in the house. In the support of these indolent drones his substance is wasted and his debts increased."
The loading children with ornaments should be discouraged. It promotes love of show, and every year it leads to several murders. Where a widow's jewels are the only property she can claim, there is some reason for women thus investing money; but otherwise it had much better be put in Savings Banks.
The following extract from Native Public Opinion is interesting as giving the views taken of Savings Banks by some people of the country :
"One of our contemporaries has felicitously observed that the wife of the poor native is, not unfrequently, her husband's walking Bank! This is certainly true, and we are not sorry it is so. The poor man's savings are often partly invested in jewels for the personal decoration of his wife. Why deprecate this? Who can possibly be a more faithful depositary? It is true the husband loses the paltry interest which he might obtain by investing in the Government Bank. But he gains in
*Quarterly Friend of India, 1821.
return the gratification of enhancing what beauty nature may have conferred on his spouse, and he further enjoys the innocent pleasure of seeing her overflowing with pride and affection! While the capital is in such safe keeping, it makes two human beings happy, the happiness of each constantly re-acting on the other, and thus perhaps sweetening a whole life-time. The weaker sex, all over the world, is fond of personal ornaments. But we are almost inclined to prefer the tastes of native wives to those of their European sisters. The latter generally indulge in the luxuries of dress, the materials of which soon perish irrecoverably, while the former generally have a traditional predilection for forms of enduring gold and silver. What is laid out in drapery is actually soon destroyed, while what is laid out in ornaments of precious metals is long preserved. The native wife has practically solved the apparently impossible problem of eating the cake, and yet keeping it. "This is not all. A lot of money invested in a Savings Bank is and must be only too accessible to the owner, who might in a sudden freak of extravagence or improvidence, withdraw and dissipate the accumulations of years. On the other hand how stands the case where the same amount has been deposited in what our contemporay designates a walking Bank? The owner cannot possibly withdraw it at his sole pleasure. He would encounter the powerful yet affectionate resistance of one who is probably the most influential member of his HomeGovernment. The very unpleasantness and humiliation involved in revoking the cherished gifts of tenderness, and the rewards of fidelity, would be an effective guarantee against thoughtless prodigality. And yet at a period of overwhelming misfortune, in the presence of imperial necessity, the locked up funds could be readily released with the concurrence of the yielding wife.
"We are decidedly reluctant to set about the dis-establishment of what is certainly one of the most potent as well as pleasant motives to industry and enterprise among our countrymen, namely the wish which they feel to provide personal ornaments for their wives. It would, we feel, be really difficult to estimate the loss of propelling power which our community would experience if divested of that wish. It would be equally difficult to calculate the diminution of inducements to good behaviour on the part of the wife, which must more or less follow that contingency."
Habits of forethought in money matters should be encouraged as far as possible. Even the Primer may contain sentences like the following: "The borrower is servant to the lender;" "Wilful waste makes woful want." Poor Richard's sayings should not be forgotten. Tales and illustrations, as well as direct advice, may be employed in books more advanced. Arithmetic may be turned to account. Questions may be given showing how rapidly interest at high rates accumulates, and how much a borrower requires to pay. The advantages of Savings Banks should be pointed out, and their superiority to paying high interest on jewels pawned.
The lessons of Archbishop Whately on "Money Matters," Mrs. Marcet's writings, Mrs. Fawcett's "Political Economy for Beginners" and many other works will yield valuable materials. Mrs. Brewster's, " Household Economy" will be useful in the preparation of a Reading Book for girls' schools and zenanas.
Mr. H. S. Reid, when Director of Public Instruction, N. W. P., caused several tales to be prepared, teaching valuable lessons in social economy. With the pressure of other subjects, it does not seem desirable to use such works as School Books, but their reading should be encouraged.
The value of instruction in science has already been noticed. The subjects to be taught will now be considered.
The Report of the British Association points out an important distinction in teaching science :
"5. To the selection of subjects that ought to be included in a programme of scientific instruction in public schools, we have given our best attention; and we would make the following remarks on the principles by which we have been guided in the selection that we shall propose.
"There is an important distinction between scientific information and scientific training; in other words, between general literary acquaintance with scientific facts and the knowledge of methods that may be gained by studying the facts at first hand under the guidance of a competent teacher. Both of these are valuable; it is very desirable, for example, that boys should have some general information about the ordinary phenomena of nature, such as the simple facts of astronomy, of geology, of physical geography, and of elementary physiology. On the other hand, the scientific habit of mind, which is the principal benefit resulting from scientific training, and which is of incalculable value whatever be the pursuits of after-life, can better be attained by a thorough knowledge of the facts and principles of one science than by a general acquaintance with what has been said or written about many. Both of these should co-exist, we think, at any school which professes to offer the highest liberal education; and at every school it will be easy to provide at least for giving some scientific information.
"I. The subjects that we recommend for scientific information as distinguished from training, should comprehend a general description of the solar system, of the form and physical geography of the earth, and of such natural phenomena as tides, currents, winds, and the causes that influence climate; of the broad facts of geology; of elementary natural history with especial reference to the useful plants and animals; and of the rudiments of physiology. This is a kind of information which requires less preparation on the part of the teacher; and its effectiveness will depend on his knowledge, clearness, method, and sympathy with his pupils. Nothing will be gained by circumscribing
these subjects by any general syllabus; they may safely be left to the discretion of the masters who teach them.
"II. And for scientific training, we are decidedly of opinion that the subjects which have paramount claims are experimental physics, elementary chemistry, and botany."*
It will be seen that a distinction is made between scientific information and scientific training. The former belongs more to the School; the latter to the University.
The course mentioned by Pattison as pursued in Normal Schools in Germany gives a good idea of the principal subjects which should be taught :
"KNOWLEDGE OF NATURE-Natural history shall be taught in the first and second years' classes two hours per week; not in a strictly scientific way, or adopting any classification. The principal indigenous plants and animals shall be brought before the pupils and described to them. In botany a foundation for further future study shall be laid. They shall be taught to distinguish the principal native minerals and rocks. A popular description of the human body shall be given. It is scarcely necessary to say that a necessary condition of this instruction is a religious disposition and tendency. The pupils ought to acquire a love for nature and natural occupations. A practical direction, too, may be given to this branch of instruction by constant reference to gardening, agriculture, industry, and trade. In the third year the students may advance to natural philosophy, which shall always be treated in an experimental way, without mathematical formula; the common instruments, machines, and mechanical powers may be explained to them, with the phenomena of heat, electricity, and magnetism."+
Some knowledge of Astronomy is of special value in India. Teachers in India are not qualified to select the subjects. They should be chosen by the ablest men acquainted with such; e. g. Professor Tyndall might arrange those on Natural Philosophy, Professor Huxley on Physiology, Dr. Hooker on Botany, &c. Such men could best indicate the points of greatest importance connected with each subject, and the order in which they might be taken up with greatest advantage. Each enthusiastic about his favourite study, would be naturally disposed to seek for it a larger share of attention than could be allowed consistently with other claims. It would be well, therefore, to inform them beforehand of the space that could be allotted to each at different stages. The determination of this would require very careful consideration.
Professor Huxley asks "four hours a week in each class" for science. At least three hours a week should be allowed.
*Schools Inquiry Commission, Vol. ii., p. 220. Education Commission, 1861, Vol. iv., pp. 258, 259. Lay Sermons, p. 76.
question is, how may this time be employed to the greatest advantage for all educational purposes?
Separate oral lessons on objects are sometimes given by teachers in England. When well-conducted they are of great value; but this is the exception. Few teachers in India are sufficiently qualified for this kind of instruction. Some guide is required.
In the elementary classes the best plan is that usually followed-to insert the lessons in the ordinary Reading Books. The expense of separate books is thus saved, and the lessons are certain to be studied. Pattison says in his Report on German Schools: "Separate lessons on natural phenomena can hardly be given in the village schools; but the teacher is to take the opportunities which the reading-book offers of bringing natural objects from time to time before the class." The Irish Series and many other books may be mentioned as examples, though the graduation is not what it should be, and the language often too technical.
One great object ought to be to cultivate the observing faculties. There is an admirable little book, "How to train young Eyes and Ears." In the early lessons the commonest objects are the best. In their selection the small volume of Dean Dawes, "Suggestive Hints towards an improved Secular Instruction, making it bear upon Practical Life," will yield much that is valuable, though adaptation to India will be necessary. Faraday's "Lectures before a Juvenile Audience," show how science may be simplified.
Professor Huxley mentions an important point in lessons on science :
"But if scientific training is to yield its most eminent results, it must, I repeat, be made practical. That is to say, in explaining to a child the general phenomena of nature you must, as far as possible, give reality to your teaching by object lessons; in teaching from botany, he must handle the plants and dissect the flowers for himself; in teaching him physics and chemistry, you must not be solicitous to fill him with information, but you must be careful that what he learns he knows of his own knowledge. Don't be satisfied with telling him that a magnet attracts iron. Let him see that it does; let him feel the pull of the one upon the other for himself."*
Though this holds good, it does not necessitate expensive apparatus. In the Science and Art Examinations at home it is
"Required that a typical collection of specimens, apparatus for the illustration of instruction, or for acquiring skill in the use of instruments, or a laboratory for practice in manipulation, should be attached to an elementary science class. Such requirements would obviously,
* Lay Sermons.