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inner concentric spheres, at whose centre is the earth, are revolving. For this theory of the universe see Longfellow's translation of the Divine Comedy, note on Paradiso 1:1. Orb might mean orbit, as sometimes in Latin; or, conceiving the earth, with the ancients, to be a flat disk, it might mean the rim of this disk.

1033. God and good Angels. So in Shak. Rich. III. v. 3.

1034. Sacred. Sophocles (Electra 86) calls light ‘holy' (páos àyvóv). But see particularly P. L. 3:1-6.

Note the exceeding beauty of this passage to the end.
1035. Walls. See v. 343.
1037. Dawn. Cf. P. L. 3: 499-500.
1041. That. So that.
1043. Vessel. Cf. Browning, Flight of the Duchess :

And at last, as its haven some buffeted ship sees,
(Come all the way from the north-parts with sperm oil)
I hope to get safely out of the turmoil.

6

Holds. Makes for. A Latinism; so portum tenet, Æn. 1 : 400. Some translate the Latin verb by reach,' in such phrases as this; but the context seems to favor the other meaning here.

1046. Weighs. Balances; see poise, v. 906. 1047. Empyreal Heaven. Cf. P. L. 3: 56-62. 1049–1050. Cf. P. L. 3: 504-509.

1050. Sapphire. See Isa. 54 : 11; Rev. 21 : 19. Native seat. Cf. P. L. 1: 85–87.

1052. Pendent world. Used by Shakespeare (Meas. III. i. 126) but perhaps originally from Ovid, Met. 1 : 12 'nec circumfuso pendebat in aere tellus ponderibus librata suis? (the earth did not as yet hang in the surrounding air, balanced by its own weight); cf. P. L. 7:242. Milton, in adopting the phrase, seems to have construed pendent more liberally, in connection with chain. Cf. Garnett, Milton, p. 158: 'This pendant world, observe, is not the earth, as Addison understood it, but the entire sidereal universe, depicted not as the infinity we now know it to be, but as a definite object, so insulated in the vastness of space as to be perceptible to the distant Fiend as a minute star, and no larger in comparison with the courts of Heaven - themselves not wholly seen — than such a twinkler matched with the full-orbed moon. Such a representation, if it diminishes the grandeur of the universe accessible to sense, exalts that of the supersensual and extramundane regions where the action takes its birth, and where Milton's gigantic imagination is most perfectly at home.'

1052. Star. Perhaps suggested by Hor., Epod. 15 : 1-2, “The moon was shining amid the lesser stars; ' perhaps rather by Hor., Od. I. xii. 46-48: 'Shines among all the Julian star, like the moon among the lesser fires.'

1054. Revenge. Earlier occurrences of this word in P. L.? What ground for revenge had Satan?

1055. Cursed hour. Why?

APPENDIX.

EXTRACTS FROM THE GENESIS OF THE PSEUDO-CÆDMON, MORLEY'S

TRANSLATION.

(Vv. 2045, 78-111, 246–260, 299438, 442-457.)

5

Even there
Pain came to them, Envy and Pride began
There first to weave ill counsel and to stir
The minds of angels. Then, athirst for strife,
He said that northward he would own in Heaven
A home and a high throne. Then God was wroth,
And for the host He had made glorious,
For those pledge-breakers, our souls' guardians,
The Lord made anguish a reward, a home
In banishment, hell-groans, hard pain, and bade
That torture-house abide their joyless fall.
When with eternal night and sulphur pains,
Fulness of fire, dread cold, reek and red flames,
He knew it filled, then through that hopeless home
He bade the woful horror to increase.

10

15

But after as before was peace in Heaven,
Fair rule of love; dear unto all the Lord
Of Lords, the King of Hosts, to all His own,
And glories of the good who possessed joy
In Heaven the Almighty Father still increased.

20 25

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30

Then peace was among dwellers in the sky,
Blaming and lawless malice were gone out,
And angels feared no more, since plotting foes
Who cast off Heaven were bereft of light.
Their glory-seats behind them in God's realm,
Enlarged with gifts, stood happy, bright with bloom,
But ownerless since the curst spirits went
Wretched to exile within bars of Hell.
Then thought within His mind the Lord of Hosts
How He again might fix within His rule
The great creation, thrones of heavenly light
High in the Heavens for a better band,
Since the proud scathers had relinquished them.
The holy God, therefore, in His great might
Willed that there should be set beneath Heaven's span 35
Earth, firmament, wide waves, created world,
Replacing foes cast headlong from their home.
Here yet was naught save darkness of the cave,
The broad abyss, whereon the steadfast King
Looked with His eyes and saw that space of gloom,
Saw the dark cloud lower in lasting night,
Was deep and dim, vain, useless, strange to God,
Black under Heaven, wan, waste, till through His word
The King of Glory had created life.

40

45

The Almighty had disposed ten angel-tribes,
The holy Father by His strength of hand,
That they whom He well trusted should serve Him
And work His will. For that the holy God
Gave intellect, and shaped them with His hands.
In happiness He placed them, and to one
He added prevalence and might of thought,

50

55

Sway over much, next highest to Himself
In Heaven's realm. Him He had wrought so bright
That pure as starlight was in Heaven the form
Which God the Lord of Hosts had given him.
Praise to the Lord his work, and cherishing
Of heavenly joy, and thankfulness to God
For his share of that gift of light, which then
Had long been his. But he perverted it,
Against Heaven's highest Lord he lifted war,
Against the Most High in His sanctuary.

60

65

70

Then was the Mighty wroth, Heaven's highest Lord
Cast him from his high seat, for he had brought
His Master's hate on him. His favor lost,
The Good was angered against him, and he
Must therefore seek the depth of Hell's fierce pains,
Because he strove against Heaven's highest Lord,
Who shook him from His favor, cast him down
To the deep dales of Hell, where he became
Devil. The Fiend with all his comrades fell
From Heaven, angels, for three nights and days,
From Heaven to Hell, where the Lord changed them all
To devils, because they His Deed and Word
Refused to worship. Therefore in worse light
Under the earth beneath, Almighty God
Had placed them triumphless in the swart Hell.
There evening, immeasurably long,
Brings to each fiend renewal of the fire;
Then comes, at dawn, the east wind keen with frost;
Its dart, or fire continual, torment sharp,
The punishment wrought for them, they must bear.
Their world was changed, and those first times filled Hell

75

80

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