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Regions of Sorrow, doleful shades, where peace 65
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes
That comes to all; but torture without end
Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed
With ever-burning fulphur unconfum'd:
Such place eternal Juftice had prepar'd

For those rebellious, here their pris'on ordain'd
In utter darkness, and their portion fet
As far remov'd from God and light of Heav'n,
As from the center thrice to th' utmost pole.

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O how

74. As from the center thrice to

th' utmost pole.] Thrice as far as it is from the center of the earth (which is the center of the world according to Milton's fyftem, IX. 103. and X. 671.) to the pole of the world; for it is the pole of the univerfe, far beyond the pole of the earth, which is here call'd the utmost pole. It is obfervable that Homer makes the feat of Hell as far beneath the deepest pit of earth, as the Heaven is above the earth,

Τόσσον ενεςθ' αΐδεω, ὅσον ερανία επ aπо yains, Iliad. VIII. 16. Virgil makes it twice as far,

Tum Tartarus ipfe

Bis patet
in præceps tantum ten-
ditque fub umbras,
Quantus ad æthereum cæli fufpe-
&tus Olympum. Æn. VI.577.

And Milton thrice as far,



O how unlike the place from whence they fell!
There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelm'd
With floods and whirlwinds of tempeftuous fire,
He foon difcerns, and welt'ring by his fide
One next himself in pow'r, and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine, and nam'd
Beelzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enemy,
And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words
Breaking the horrid filence thus began.


If thou beeft he; but O how fall'n! how chang'd From him, who in the happy realms of light 85 Cloth'd

As far remov'd from God and light of Heaven,

As from the center thrice to th❜utmoft pole :

As if these three great poets had stretched their utmoft genius, and vied with each other, who fhould extend his idea of the depth of Hell fartheft. But Milton's whole defcription of Hell as much exceeds theirs, as in this fingle circumftance of the depth of it. And how cool and unaffecting is the ταρταρον περοείία, the σιδηραιαιτε πυλαι καὶ χαλκεον εδος of Homer, and the lugentes campi, the ferrea turris, and borrifono ftridentes cardine porte of Virgil, in comparifon with this defcription by Milton, concluding with that artful contrast,


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Cloth'd with tranfcendent brightnefs didft outfhine

Myriads though bright! If he whom mutual league, United thoughts and counfels, equal hope

And hazard in the glorious enterprise,


Join'd with me once, now nifery hath join'd
In equal ru'in: into what pit thou seeft
From what highth fall'n, so much the stronger prov'd

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The change and confufion of thefe enemies of God is moft artfully exprefs'd in the abruptnefs of the beginning of this fpeech: If thou art he, that Beelzebub He ftops, and falls into a bitter reflection on their prefent condition, compared with that in which they lately were. He attempts again to open his mind; cannot proceed on what he intends to fay, but returns to thefe fad thoughts; ftill doubting whether it is really his affociate in the revolt, as now in mifery and ruin; by that time he had expatiated on this (his heart was opprefs'd with it) he is affured to whom he fpeaks, and goes on to declare his proud unrelenting mind.



84. But O bow fall'n! how chang'd

From him,] He imitates Ifaiah and Virgil at the fame time. Ifa. XIV. 12. How art theu fall'n, &c. and Virgil's Æn. II. 274.

Hei mihi qualis erat! quantum mutatus ab illo !


Cloth'd with tranfcendent brightnefs didft outshine Myriads though bright !] Imitated from Homer, Odyff. VI. 110. where Diana excels all her nymphs in beauty, though all of them be beautiful.

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He with his thunder: and till then who knew
The force of thofe dire arms? yet not for those,
Nor what the potent victor in his rage
Can else inflict, do I repent or change,
Though chang'd in outward luftre, that fix'd mind,
And high disdain from sense of injur'd merit,

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That with the Mightieft rais'd me to contend,
And to the fierce contention brought along
Innumerable force of Spirits arm'd,

That durft dislike his reign, and me preferring,
His utmost pow'r with adverse pow'r oppos'd

In dubious battel on the plains of Heaven,


And shook his throne. What though the field be loft?

All is not loft; th' unconquerable will,

And study of revenge, immortal hate,


And courage never to submit or yield,
And what is elfe not to be overcome;
That glory never fhall his wrath or might
Extort from me. To bow and fue for grace
With fuppliant knee, and deify his power,

105. be loft ? All is not loft; &c.] This paffage is an excellent improvement upon Satan's fpeech to the infernal Spirits in Taffo, Cant. 4. St. 15. but feems to be express'd from Fairfax his tranflation rather than from the original.

What though the field

our heart.

109. And what is elfe not to be



and if there be any thing else (befides the particulars mention'd) which is not to be overcome.


110. That glory, &c.] That refers to what went before; his unconquerable will and ftudy of revenge, his immortal bate and courage never to

We loft the field, yet loft we not submit or yield, and what befides is not to be overcome; thefe Satan efteems his glory, and that glory he fays God never fhould extort from him. And then begins a new fentence according to all the best editions, To bow and fue for grace, &c.—that were low indeed, &c. that ftill referring to what went before

overcome; Here fhould be no note of interrogation, but only a femi-colon. The words And what is elle not to be overcome fignify Fifi quid fit aliud quod fuperari nequeat,


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