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7. "The elect are not chosen to salvation, rather than others, because of any moral excellence in them, or out of respect to any foreseen faith and repentance."

7. "There can be no more reasons to induce God to save the righteous at the day of judgment, than there were to induce him in eternity to decree that they should be saved. Syst. Vol. 2. p. 174. Nor can there be any more reasons to induce God to destroy the wicked at the day of judgment, than there were in eternity to induce him to decree that the wicked should be destroyed." Williams, p. 136, 221,

8. God began to execute his decrees, by the creation, and he continues his work by proSyst.

vidential government.

Vol. 1. p. 224 and 243. Both the means and ends are predestinated in every event.

Syst. passim.



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God created all things which exist, by the immediate agency of his power, according to the design of his wisdom, and for the purposes of his goodness. The question, why did not God make the world before? is impertinent," and well did that pious old man speak, who when a wanton fellow did in scorn demand of him, what God had done before the foundation of the world, answered that he builded hell for curious fools." B. 1. ch. 14. sec. 1.

Having formed the earth and its inhabitants, in the space of six days, rather than instantly, for our instruction, he made the first man, of the dust of the earth. Angels were previously made. To the animal body of man, God joined an immortal, but created soul, of

two constituent parts, understanding, or mind, and heart, or will. The soul is immaterial and can exist in a separate state from the body. It is called a spirit, when considered as disjoined from the body.

The image of God in which Adam was created, consisted, not in the erect form of his bo


"It pleased God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, for the manifestation of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom and goodness, in the beginning, to create, or make of nothing, the world, and all things therein, whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good. After God had made all other creatures, he created man, male and female, with reasonable and immortal souls, endued with knowledge, righteousness and true holiness, after his own image, having the law of God written in their hearts, and power to fulfil it; and yet under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will, which was subject unto change."

Con. C. Scot. ch. 4. Con. P. C. U. S. p. 23, 24. Say. Plat. ch. 4.

"We believe that God created man out of the dust of the earth, and made and formed him after his own image and likeness, good, righteous and holy, capable in all things to will, agreeable to the will of God." Con. R. D. C. Art. 14.

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God spake the whole creation into being, from nothing, with infinite ease. He formed angels and men, and it is very improbable that there are any other orders of created beings. The creation of the world from chaos, was emblematical of the new creation out of confusion and moral darkness. The gradual increase of light and order, was emblematical of the dawn and rising of the Sun of rightcousness upon the moral world.

Six days were employed in the creation, to divide our time, and give us an example of holy rest on the Sabbath. The six days were also emblematical of the six thousand years of the preparatory work of redemption, antecedent to the seventh millennium, or sabbath in the age of the world and church. The question, why was not the creation begun sooner? is impertinent and absurd.

Adam was made of the dust, in the latter end of September; when the fruits were prepared for his use; and Eve was taken out of his side, to intimate the relation which should subsist between the sexes. Man was


To the works of creation,. usually enumerated by divines, Dr. Emmons has added holiness and sin. He says, "it is agreeable to the nature of virtue, or holiness, to be created. The volitions or moral exercises of the mind are virtuous or vicious, in their own nature, without the least regard to the cause, by which they are produced." "I may further observe, that, holiness is something which has a real and positive existence, and which not only may, but must be created."

Adam before and after the fall, in his understanding had the natural image of Jehovah; but it was a MORAL IMAGE, particularly referred to when God said, "let us make man in our image, after our likeness." Adam's heart was so created as to resemble the heart of God; or his moral exercises, which were of a benevolent nature were created in him.

His primitive rectitude consisted in the nature of his choice, and not in any power to choose, or "power of free will," for this he never had. "Such a dependent creature could no more


dy, or beauty of his face, but chiefly in a clear understanding, affections framed according to reason, senses governed in right order, and soundness of all his parts. "Though the principal seat of the image of God was in the mind and heart, or in the soul, and powers thereof, yet was there no part of man, not so much as his body, wherein did not some sparks thereof appear." There was a perfection of powers, as well as wisdom and holiness. He had understanding to discern good from evil, and power of free-will, whereby he might have attained to eternal life.

Inst. B. 1. ch. 5 and 15.

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"Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom, and power to will and to do that which is good and well pleasing to God; but yet mutably, so that he might fall from it."

Con. C. Scot. ch. 9. Say. Plat. ch. 9. sec. 2. and Con. P. C. U. S. p. 51. "God of the slime of the earth created man, after his image, that is to say, good, just, and holy, who had power by his own free will, to frame and conforme his will unto the will of God." Con. of Belgia. "Man was before his fall, upright and free, who might both continue in goodnesse, and decline to evill." Latter Con, of Helvetia. "He made our first parents, Adam and Eve, the root of mankind, both upright and able to keep the law written in their heart." Con. C. Scot. p. 446. "Man was created of God, just, wise, indued with free will, adorned with the Holy Ghost, and happie."* Con. of Wertemberge,

ch. 4.

"He is as holy, wise and good in creating unholy beings as he is in creating holy beings. That God creates unholy as well as holy beings, is evident from his own words. He says, "I form the light and create darkness; I make peace and create evil; I, the Lord, do all these things." Williams, p. 193.

It remains still to be proved, that evil here means any thing more than that natural evil, which God brings upon the wicked, to punish them. "Shall there be evil in the city," such as pestilence," and the Lord hath not done it ?"

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made a moral agent, capable of moral exercises, through the agency of the Deity upon his heart: these were all benevolent, disinterested, or holy; and in this consisted the image of God, in which he was created. It was a moral image. heart was love.


produce his own volitions, than his own existence." "It is in vain to attempt to account for the first sin of the first man, by the instrumentality of second causes." "It is extremely difficult to conceive, how he should be led into sin, without the immediate interposition of Syst. Part. 1. ch. 5. the DEITY."* Emmons' Ser. 12.


Dr. Hopkins asserts in like manner, that holiness and sin are a part of the creation of God. The principal part of ch. IV. Part I. of his System, is devoted to the support of this doctrine. "Who does not now see that God may determine, order and cause moral evil to take place, and in this sense, create it, consistent with his infinite holiness and goodness, if this be necessary for the greatest good of the whole, both moral and natural; yea, that God could not be infinitely wise and good, if, on this supposition, he did not order and cause it to take place?" Vol. I. p. 186.

Those persons, who are so unguarded in expression, as to say, that God is the author of sin, or creator of moral evil, would do well to remember an anecdote, which has found its way to this side of the Atlantic It conveys in a parabolical manner very severe reproof.

An elderly gentleman, it is said, was seated at the door of his country mansion, near the Land's End, when he saw a ghastly, grim, black personage crossing his manor. Stop, stop, you black monster, and give an ac count of yourself. How came you here?”


I am leaving the country, let me pass unmolested.

"Whither do you betake yourself? Tell me, or you cannot pass."

I am going to New-England; let me go, and I will never return.

“But stay, sir, are you not his Majesty's subject? Why, then, do you quit the kingdom?”

I am dissatisfied with my residence here; for if any evil is done in either of the three kingdoms, it is charged to my account; but in New-England men charge all their sin upon their Maker. Having thus spoken, he pulled off his cap, and girded high around him his sable robe. The long ears and cloven foot made the inquisitive lord of the manor shrink back with horror. Away fled the Devil to the sea coast. What form he assumed, when he engaged his passage, and while on his voyage, is not related; but it is thought that he entered New-England in the form of a lean, bald-headed, philosophical Arminian, who obtained a country parish, became very studious, and published heresy under the specious title of Calvinism.

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