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1. "The bare light of nature discovers only the supremacy of the Creator, and the dependence of creatures."

Emmons' Ser. p. 27.*.

2. The essential difference between virtue and vice may be known by those who are wholly ignorant of God."

Emmons, p. 63.

"Men are capable of judging what is right or wrong, in respect to the divine character and conduct,"

Emmons, p. 65.

"Moral subjects as irresistibly obtrude upon the conscience, as visible objects do upon the eye. And a man can no more avoid seeing and believing moral truths, than he

* In all the quotations from Emmons, reference is made to his volume sermons, "On some of the first principles and doctrines of true religion," printed at Wrentham, Massachusetts, A. D. 1800. It will be found upon a careful examination of the following pages, that Dr. Emmons is strictly Hopkinsian in most of his sentiments. He has taken the leading doctrines, which are exhibited in the system, for his guide in matters of faith; and undauntedly pursued them, regardless of consequences. What Dr. Hopkins commenced, he has carried to perfection; and what that excellent man taught confusedly, he has inculcated in language too plain to be misunderstood. Of the two writers, the one of Franklin is certainly to be preferred, because he is more systematical in his arrangements, more thorough in his investigations, and more precise in his language, than the one of Newport. Dr. Emmons is a metaphysician who does not flinch!

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taments are the word of God, which was written under the plenary inspiration of the Holy Ghost; and which is proved to be of divine origin, by the antiquity, dignity, unity and excellence of the writings; by the integrity of the writers, miracles, prophecy, history, and more especially by the inward testimony of the spirit.

Inst. B. 1. ch. 7 and 8. 4. The scriptures are the only rule of faith and practice. By them we are to try every spirit. "The Spirit of Christ is given, not to guide men without the scripture, but according to the scripture." The Spirit and the written word must "go hand in hand.”


p. 4 and 5. Say. Plat. p. 15. Con. C. Scot. p. 28 and 29. Con. R. D. C. Art. 3, 4, 5 and 6. Also, in the Confessions of the German Protestants in the city of Auspurge, A. D. 1530, of Basil, in 1532, of the Waldenses in 1532, of Helvetia in 1566, of France in 1559, and of the English Church in 1562. See "An Harmony of Confessions, printed in London, A. D. 1643.

4. "The whole counsel of God, concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man's salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down in scripture, or by good and necessary consequence, may be deduced from scripture."

Con. P. C. U. S. p. 6. Con. C. Inst. B. 1. ch. 9. Scot. p. 30. Say. Plat. p. 16. Con. R. D. C. Art. 5. And all the ancient Protestant Confessions.

* Much is said by the Hopkinsians, about the right and wrong in the nature of things; but Calvin considered the command of God to be the only foundation of right. His sentiments appear to have been the same with those expressed by that distinguished philologist, JoHN HORNE TOOKE, in his "Diversions of Purley." "RIGHT," he says, "is no other than RECт-um, (regitum) the past participle of the Latin verb regere," from rego, to rule. Hence right signifies, that which is ruled or ordered. "Thus, when a man demands his RIGHT; he asks only for that which it is ordered he shall have. A right conduct is that which is ordered.” "The right road is, that ordered or directed to be pursued (for the object you have in view) To do right is, to do that which is ordered to be done. To be in the right is, to be in such situation or circumstances as are ordered." In a religious view, therefore, that alone is right, which God has ordered us to perform. How then, can any pretend that the nature of things constitutes right and wrong? So far as the nature of things reveals what God has

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men, profane history, miracles, prophecy, the light which the Old and New Testaments reflect on each other, the care of Jews and Christians to preserve the sacred writings, the harmony which subsists between all the parts, and the Godlike contents of the whole volume.

Syst. Vol. 1. Part. 1. ch. 1. 4. "This is a complete, unerring and perfect rule of faith and practice, and the only rule. This being understood and believed, is sufficient to make men wise unto salvation; and we have no warrant to believe any religious truth, unless it be revealed, or can be supported by the Holy Scriptures; and this is the only rule of our duty." System, Vol. 1. p. 45.


can avoid seeing natural objects, when both are placed before his mind with equal plainness." Emmons, p. 77.

3. "The divine Spirit suggested every word and thought to the holy penmen.”

Emmons' Ser. 2.

4. There is an essential difference between right and wrong in the nature of things, which does not depend upon the divine will, which God cannot destroy without destroying the nature of things; and which all moral agents are capable of discerning without a revelation: therefore, "there is a propriety in every man's judging for himself in matters of morality and religion."

Emmons' Ser. 3.

enjoined upon man, so far it exhibits the difference between right and wrong, which are entirely dependent on the will of God. When we apply right to God, we cannot intend that he has a superior, or is commanded by the nature of his creatures. We say, "God has a right, and God is right, OF RIGHT-Cous." We intend, that he might with propriety act upon such moral principles as he has commanded us to regard; or that his dealings are analogous to those which he has enjoined upon his rational creatures. He is right or RIGHT-eous, when he acts according to his own rule. His perfections may also be said, figuratively, to require, or command a certain course of conduct; and in this sense, the attributes of Jehovah are to him the rule of right. "Shall not the judge of all the earth do right ?” Will not God speak the truth, fulfil his promises, and do good? Will he not obey the laws prescribed by his own character? Will he not conform to those moral rules, by which he has required his offspring to regulate their conduct?


5. The natural powers of the mind, as well as the affections of the heart are so corrupted, that men cannot savingly understand the scriptures without a divine illumination of the understanding, as well as a renovation of the heart.

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5. The same doctrine is taught, in the Con. C. Scot. ch. 1. sec. 6. and ch. 10. sec. 1. Say. Plat. p. 16 and 41. Con. P. C. U. S. p. 7, 54, 199 and 349. Con. R. D. C. Canon 3. Art. 1.

The latter confession of Helvetia teaches, that the under

Inst. B. 1. chap. 4, 5, 6. standing has suffered such a depravation as to render illumination necessary to the discernment of divine truth,

6. It is our crime, that " we want natural power," to "climb upunto the pure and clear knowledge of God," by the reading of the scriptures.

Inst. B. 1. ch. 5. sec. 14.

7.The written revelation is now completed, and other revelations are not to be expected. Inst. B. 1. ch. 9.

6. By "a due use of the ordinary means," the learned and the unlearned might obtain a sufficient understanding of the scriptures.

Con. C. Scot. ch. 1. sec. 7. Con. P. C. U. S. p. 8. Say. Plat. f. 17.

7. The confessions say the same. Con. C. Scot. ch. 1. sec. 6. Say. Plat. p. 16, Con. P. C. U. S. p. 6 and 7.




1. "There is one indivisible divine essence, which is unbegotten, absolutely of itself and without beginning."

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1. There is but one only, living and true God, say all confessions. That there is a God we know by the creation, preInst. B. 1. ch. 13. sec. 25. servation and government of


5. Men are under no natural or mental incapacity of savingly understanding the scriptures: they merely want a right disposition of heart to discern what they are perfectly able to understand.

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5. "The Pagans, and even little children know the nature of virtue and vice, and are able to perceive the essential difference between truth and falsehood, justice and injustice, kindness and unkindness, obe

Syst. Part 1. ch. 1. and Part dience and disobedience, as

2. ch. 4.

6. It is our crime, that we do not savingly understand the scriptures, because we have the natural ability, but want the disposition.

well as their parents, or any other persons, who are acquainted with God and the revelation of his will."

Emmons, p. 64.

6. Men are criminal for not understanding'the word of God; because it is an exhibition of the difference of right and wrong in the nature of things,

System, Part 1. ch. 1. which difference they have naturalconscience to perceive.

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