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"Our question is not here. how diversely Christ draweth us unto him, or prepareth us to the endeavour of godliness: only this I say, that there can be no uprightness found where reigneth not the Spirit which Christ received to communicate the same to his members.* Then, according to the saying of the Psaimist, (Ps. cxxx. 4.) 'with thee is mercifulness, that thou mayest be feared.' No man will ever reverently fear God, but he that trusteth that God is merciful unto him: no man will willingly prepare himself to the keeping of the law, but he that is persuaded that his services please him: which tenderness in pardoning and bearing with faults, is a sign of fatherly favour. Which is also showed by that exhortation of Hosea, Hos. vi. 2. Come, let us return to the Lord, because he hath plucked us, and he will heal us: he hath stricken us, and he will cure us."

Inst. B. 3. ch. 3. sec. 2. †


"By the outward ordinances, as our Lord makes the reprobate inexcusable, so, in the power of his spirit, he applies unto the elect effectually, all saving graces purchased to them in the covenant of redemption, and maketh a change in their persons. In particular, 1, He doth convert and regenerate them, by giving spiritual life to them, in opening their understandings, renewing their wills, affections and faculties, for giving spiritual obedience to his commands. 2. He gives them saving faith, by making them, in the sense of deserved condemnation, to give their consent heartily to the covenant of grace, and to embrace Jesus Christ unfeignedly. 3. He gives them repentance, by making them with godly sorrow, in the hatred of sin and love of righteousness, turn from all iniquity to serve God."

Sum of Saving Knowledge, Head 4. in Scot. Con.

* See note A at the end of this chapter.

The Calvinists believe, that in effectually calling rational beings, who have the power of volition, God deals in a rational way; so that without creating volitions immediately, all the elect are infallibly brought to hate iniquity and love holiness. The divine influences operate upon the man, who is to be called into God's marvellous light, through the instrumentality of appropriate means. These means of effectual calling, are denominated means of grace. For a description of these, see at the end of this chapter, Note B.



HOPKINS, It is the design of the preaching of the gospel to show sinners the duty of immediate and perfect holiness; to convince them of their great wickedness; and teach them what they must really do, by their own voluntary act. Being acted upon, they must exercise disinterested love, repentance and faith, or perish. "And when men enjoy the gospel, God opens the hearts of whom he pleases." In view of gospel truths, God creates holy exercises of repentance and faith, in some who could, but otherwise never would believe and obey.


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"By common grace, God invites and commands men to accept salvation, and makes them feel their obligation to submit to the terms of life. But by special grace, God actually in

Syst. Vol. 2. Part 2. ch. 4. clines their hearts to embrace

sec. 9.

"The divine operation in regeneration, of which the new heart is the effect, is immediate, or it is not wrought by the en

of any means as a cause of
it; but by the immediate power
and energy of the Holy Spirit.
It is called a creation, and the
divine agency in it, is as much
without a medium, as in crea-

ting something from nothing.
Men are not regenerated, in
the sense in which we are now
considering regeneration, by
light or the word of God."

Syst. Vol. 1. p. 536.

Jesus Christ freely offered to
them in the gospel. God usual-
ly exercises common grace to-
ward sinners, long before 'he
makes them the subjects of
He often em-
special grace.
ploys every mode of moral sua-
sion, a great while, before he
puts forth an act of his power
to make them willing to be

Emmons, p. 666.



The elect sinner, for whose sins Christ made satisfaction, and for whose person he purchased salvation, is, at the time appointed in the counsels of peace, apprehended of the Saviour by the Holy Spirit, and so quickened in Christ, that he, who was once dead, embraces the Lord of glory, for his righteousness and strength.

According to the covenant of grace, Christ takes this sinner, claiming him for his own ransomed property, and infuses, by his Spirit, a new, spiritual principle of life. Christ unites himself to the sinner by his quickening Spirit, and the sinner unites himself by faith to the Redeemer. This union is reciprocal, because the parties concerned are mutually united; and spiritual, because it is effected by the Holy Ghost. It is also called mystical, because it is an inexplicable fact, which is asserted in divine revelation: but it is not more mysterious than the union between matter and mind; between divinity and humanity in Christ; or between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost in one Godhead.

That the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are one God; that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures are united in the one person Jesus Christ; and that believers are members of Christ's mystical body, are three mysterious facts, to which God in the scriptures bears testimony. These three mysterious doctrines, taught in divine revelation, are above our comprehension, but not contrary to our reason. They are the cardinal points upon which every other part of the system of truth depends, and against which every error, in a greater or less degree, militates.

Deism, polytheism, and atheism, are directly opposed to the first, and consequently to the other two. Judaism, Arianism, S.bellianism and Socinianism, are directly opposed to the second, and consequently to the first and third. All the errors

and confusion of doctrines which prevail among Christians, excepting on the questions which relate to the external order of the *church, militate against the third; and if carried out, consistently, to their full length, would also indirectly oppose the two first mysteries.

The formation of the covenant of grace immediately rests on the Trinity; and the fulfi ment of the conditions of that covenant on the hypostatical union; while the application of the benefits purchased depends entirely on the mystical union between Christ and the redeemed sinner.

Upon these principles proceeds the arrangement of the doctrines in the Westminster Standards. “The union which the elect have with Christ is the work of God's grace, whereby they are SPIRITUALLY and MYSTICALLY, yet really and inseparably, joined to Christ as their head and husband; which is done in their effectual calling." Larger Cat. Q. 66. partakers of the redemption purchased by fectual application of it to us by his Holy Spirit." Shorter Cat. Q. 29. "The Spirit applieth to us the redemption purchased by Christ, by working faith in us, and thereby uniting us to Christ in our effectual calling." Shorter Cat. Q. 30. See also Larger Cat. Q. 58.

"We are made Christ, by the ef

This doctrine of a spiritual and mystical union is explicitly taught in the holy scriptures. “I am the vine, ye are the branches; he that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without me ye can do nothing." John xv 5. "Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word; that they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us." “ And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one." John xvii. 20, 21, 22. "We are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones." “This is a great mystery; but I speak concerning Christ and the Church." Eph. v. 30 and 32.

On this mystical union it is important that every believer should insist, because upon it depends the whole doctrine of the

application of redemption. Regeneration is one benefit purchased by Christ, for the elect sinner, which is bestowed, in the order of nature, before the mystical union is completed. By the gift of the principle of faith God renews, and by the exercise of faith the sinner embraces Christ; so that from this time the union is formed, and the believing sinner possesses spiritual life. By faith we receive Christ for our Head, and by the pulsations of his heart the currents of life flow to the remotest members of his body. He is not only our righteousness, but our life: not only the way, and the truth, but the spiritual source of all holy activity. The mystical union is the foundation of our justification, adoption, sanctification and exaltation to heaven. In Christ alone can we be pardoned, accepted, purified, and made heirs of the blessedness of the Redeemer's kingdom.

This is the creed of the whole Presbyterian church. In addition to the parts of our standards already quoted, let any one consult the 10th chapter of the Confession, and the 69th question of the Larger Catechism. of our creed will then remain. should be preserved inviolate.

Not one doubt of the Calvinism
This bond of ecclesiastical union



Some philosophical divines utterly reject the idea of means of grace. But we read in the holy scriptures of a space for repentance,* of an accepted time, and of the day of salvation. Why then may we not speak of a day of grace?

The scriptures speak of knowing the grace of God, and of the bestowment,§ dispensation, and reception,¶ of the grace of

* Rev. ii. 21, † 2 Cor. vi. 2. Eph. iii. 2.

Colos. i. 6.

$ 2 Cor. viii. 1.

2 Cor. vi. 1..

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