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do mildly suffer it. But what constancy or stout courage were it for the Son of God to be astonished, and in a manner struck dead with the fear of it? For even that which among the common sort might be accounted miraculous, is reported of him, that for vehemency of grief, even drops of blood did fall from his face. Neither did he this to make a show to the eyes of others, but when in a secret corner, whither he was gone out of company, he groaned unto his Father. And this puts it out of all doubt, that it was needful that he should have angels to come down from heaven to relieve him with an unwonted manner of comforting. How shameful a tenderness, as I said, should this have been, to be so far tormented for fear of common death, as to melt in bloody sweat, and not to be able to be comforted, but by sight of angels? What? doth not that prayer thrice repeated, (Matt. xxvi. 29.) Father, if it be possible, let this cup depart from me,' proceeding from an incredible bitterness of heart, shew that Christ had a more cruel and harder battle than with com, mon death."

"This is our wisdom, well to understand how dear our salvation did cost the Son of God. Now if a man should ask me if Christ went down to hell, when he prayed to escape that death; I answer, that then was the beginning of it: whereby may be gathered, how grievous and terrible torments he suf fered when he knew himself to stand to be arraigned for our cause before the judgment-seat of God." Inst. B.2 ch. 16. sec. 12.

The doctrine that Christ locally descended to the souls of the fathers, confined in some subterraneous region, called Limbus, or purgatory, is explicitly condemned, by Calvin.

Inst. B. 2. ch. 16. sec. 12

The answer to the 44th question of the Heidelbergh Catechism says that these words, "he descended into hell," were added, "that in my greatest temptations, I may be assured, and wholly comfort myself in this, that my Lord Jesus Christ by his inexpressible anguish, pains, terrors, and hellish agonies, in which he was plunged during all his sufferings, but especially on the cross, hath delivered me from the anguish and torments of hell."

Witsius says, 66 although the article of Christ's descent to hell is found, in so many words, neither in the holy scriptures, nor in the most ancient Creeds; yet in some sense, it is religiously believed and asserted by us.".

Witsii Exercitationes sacræ in Symbolum, Exer. 18. cap. 8.

"When, therefore, we profess to believe that Christ descended to hell; we think that article has reference partly to his body, and partly to his soul." Ibid. cap. 9 "So far as it respects the body, it denotes his burial, or the retention of his body in the sepulchre, and in the state of death." Cap. 10. "But we have also signified that it can be applied to the soul: not however because it is written in Psalm xvi. 10th, thou wilt not leave my soul in hell' for it is not necessary to understand that passage as referring to that part of man which we call soul or mind. The Hebrew word w, which the Psalmist uses, sometimes signifies the animal, or the irrational, Gen. i. 20, 21. or the rational part." "What therefore prevents, that if we do not, with the venerable Beza, in his first edition of the New Testament, translate it, we at least expound it, non derelinques cadaver meum in sepulchro.' For that by NEPHES is sometimes denoted the mortal body, and by SCHEOL the sepulchre, I think is abundantly supported by what has been already said. Nevertheless, we profess to believe, that the soul also descended to hell: not however in that sense, in which it pleases the Romanists, after some of the ancients, to teach, as if the soul of Christ, after separated from the body by death, truly, properly and locally had visited certain subterraneous places; whether of Tartarus, that he might show to those whom eternal punishments detain, and even to the Devil himself, the potency of his reign and the triumph regained from transgression; or of I know not what Limbus, which is said to be situated on the margin of Tartarus, that he might announce to the spirits of the fathers, salvation procured by himself, and bring them back thence with him, to be borne to heaven." Cap. 13 et 14. This descent, says the same learned writer, into hell, is a figurative description of the pains of soul, which Christ endured before death. See the whole of Exercitatio XVIII,

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ing. The first is an universal of God's almighty power and

grace, whereby (out of his free and special love to his elect, and from nothing in them moving him thereunto,) he doth, in his accepted time, invite and draw them to Jesus Christ, by his word and Spirit; savingly enlightening their minds, renewing and powerfully determining their wills, so as they (although in themselves dead

calling, by "the outward preaching of the word," which renders even reprobates inexcusable. The second is a special calling, given to the elect, which is a manifestation of their election, which consists in "the inward enlightening of his Spirit," by which "he maketh the word preached to be settled in their hearts." Inst. B. 3. ch. 24. sec. 1 and 8. in sin) are hereby made willing

"That general calling is common to the wicked; but this special calling bringeth with it the spirit of regeneration, which is the earnest and seal of the inheritance to come,

and able freely to answer his call, and to accept and embrace the grace offered and conveyed therein."

"All the elect, and they only are effectually called; although others may be, and often are,

* The expression, “effectual calling," has become almost obsolete, in the vocabulary of modern theology. The reason is obvious. The idea which was formerly expressed by it, is deemed Arminian heresy. Since men are not affected by the fall, in any thing but the will, and since that will is only to be changed by the creation of a new and holy volition, there can be no propriety in speaking of this creation, as of a calling, inviting, and effectually persuading the sinner. Dr. Hopkins' System contains one chap'on regeneration," and another on "divine illumination;" in both of which, he attempts to prove, that the scriptural " enlightening of the mind," consists in the bestowment of "a HEART to know God.”

ter "

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Regeneration is an act of God, in which, by his almighty energy he produces "the exercise of a new heart." In this act, of which God is the agent, man is passive; and is "the subject on which, or in which, the effect is wrought." The effect wrought, is a holy volition, and in exercising this, which is conversion, or turning about from sin to God, man is active. The effect of regeneration may be called, in general, love, or universal, disinterested benevolence.

2, 3.


Effectual calling consists in God's creating in the heart of the sinner, by his own immediate energy, a willingness to be saved.

Emmons, p. 368. and Wil liams' 4th Sermon.

"It appears, from what has been said, that men need no supernatural divine assistance, in order to make them able to obey all the commands of God. If men needed any supernatural, divine assistance, in order to make them able to obey any of the divine commands, they


Hop. Syst. Part 2. ch. 4. sec. would be unable to obey those

"The subject of this operation, in which this change and effect is wrought, is the will of the heart; that is, the moral and not the natural powers and faculties of the soul. As moral depravity is wholly in the will or heart, the source and seat of all moral actions, the divine operation directly respects the heart; and consists in changing and renewing that. The understanding or intellect, considered as distinct from the will,

commands so long as that necessary assistance was withholden: which would be the same as for God to require more of them than they are able to do. But this he never does. Men, therefore, need no supernatural, divine assistance, in order to make them able to obey all the commands of God. So long as they are upheld in being, they are able, without any aid or assistance whatever, to do all that God requires."

Mass. Miss. Mag. Vol. 3. p.



wherewith our hearts are sealed up against the day of the Lord." B. 3. ch 24. sec. 8.

"We are called to the knowledge of God; not such as, contented with vain speculation, doth but fly about in the brain,

but such as shall be sound and fruitful, if it be rightly conceived, and take root in our hearts."

B. 1. ch. 5. sec. 8.


"The letter thereof is dead, and the law of the Lord killeth the readers of it, when it is separated from the grace of Christ, and not touching the heart, only soundeth in the ears. But if it be effectually printed in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, if it present Christ unto us; then it is the word of life, converting souls, giving wisdom to little ones, making hearts cheerful, and giving light to the eyes. (Ps. xix.) The apostle calleth his preaching the ministry of the Holy Ghost, (2 Cor. iii. 8.) meaning that the Holy Ghost doth so stick fast in his truth, which he hath expressed in the scriptures, that then only he putteth forth and displayeth his force, when the scripture hath her due reverence and dignity." Inst. B. 1. ch. 6. sec. 4. and ch. 9. sec. 3.


outwardly called by the ministry of the word, and have some common operations of the Spirit; who, for their wilful neglect and contempt of the grace offered to them, being justly left in their unbelief, do never truly come to Jesus Christ."

Larger Cat. Q. 67, 68 Con. P. C. U. S. Con. C. Scot. and Say. Plat. ch. 10. sec. 1, 2, 4.

"But when God accomplishes his good pleasure in the elect, or works in them true conversion, he not only causes the gospel to be externally preached to them, and powerfully illuminates their minds by his Holy Spirit, that they may rightly understand and discern the things of the Spirit of God; but by the efficacy of the same regenerating Spirit, pervades the inmost recesses of the man; he opens the closed and softens the hardened heart, and circumcises that which was uncircumcised, infuses new qualities into the will, which though heretofore dead, he quickens, from being evil, disobedient and refractory he renders it good, obedient, and pliable; actuates and strengthens it, that like a good tree it may bring forth the fruits of good actions."

Con. R. D. C. Head 3. and art. 11. of the Canons.

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