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"Faith does not bring into a justified state, because it is a good work, or out of respect to the moral goodness there is in it; but because of the natural fitness there is, that he whose heart is united to Christ, as it is by believing, should be recommended to favour, and justified by his worthiness and righteousness, to whom he is thus united, and in whom he trusts."

Syst. Vol. 2. p. 23, 58, 61, 62, 65, 66, and 74.


character, and of consequence his sufferings had no more merit than the sufferings of the transgressor."


"The nature of the atonement was such, that though it rendered full satisfaction to justice, yet it inferred no obligation on justice for the deliverance of sinners, but left their deliverance an act of pure grace;" instead of a legal justification, by a substitute.


"Atonement extends to all men, but redemption will apply only to a number from among men.

Atonement doth not imply the forgiveness of sin. Atonement is the foundation for redemption, and not redemption itself." Of course the atonement does not imply the justification of any sinner.

Theological Magazine.

It is out of the divine power so to impute guilt or obedience, as to transfer either, from Adam to his posterity, or from Christ to his people; so that Christ's righteousness is never in this sense imputed.

Emmons, p. 304, 305.

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redemption, and are delivered from destruction: that in him, we are adopted by our heavenly Father as children and heirs: that by his blood we are reconled to the Father: (John x. 28.) that being given to him to keep we are delivered from all danger of perishing and being lost; that being ingraffed in him, we are already after a certain manner partakers of eternal life, being entered into the kingdom of God by hope: and yet more, that having obtained such a partaking of him, though we be fools in ourselves, he is wisdom for us before God: though we be sinners, he is righteousness for us: though we be impure, he is purity for us; though we be weak, unarmed and lying open in danger of Satan, yet ours is the power, which is given him in heaven and earth, whereby he may tread down Satan for us, and break the gates

of hell."

B. 3. ch. 16. sec. 5.


"To justifie, in the apostle's disputation touching justificacation, doth signifie to remit sinnes, to absolve from the fault, and the punisment thereof, to receive into favour, to pronounce a man just." This justification is by the atonement in Christ's blood.

Latter Con. Helvetia. Cons: Basil, Bohemia, France, Eng land, Belgia, and Ausperge.

"In expounding the word justified, it is usually said, to be justified doth signify, of unrighteous to be made righteous that is, acquitted from the guilt for the Sonne of God his sake, that is laying hold by faith upon Christ himself, who is our righteousness."

Con. Saxony.

* Guilt is a law term, which denotes obligation to suffer the penalty which is annexed to the law that is violated,


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* See Notes A. B. and C. at the end of this chapter.



The advocates for an indefinite atonement conceive, that they have espoused the common opinion of the reformed churches. The Synod of Dort, they say, has decided in their favour; and this ecclesiastical body was formed by messengers from the protestant churches of Great Britain, the Electoral Palatine, Hessia, Switzerland, Witteraw, the republic and church of Geneva, the republic and church of Bremen, the republic and church of Emden, the Dutchy of Gelderland and of Zutphen, South-Holland, North-Holland, Zealand, the Province of Utrecht, Friesland, Transylvania, the State of Groningen and Omland, Drent, and France, This venerable Synod was convened, A. D. 1618,

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and solemnly declared, in their Canons, Head 2. Art. 3. that "the death of the Son of God is the only and most perfect sacrifice and satisfaction for sin; is of infinite worth and value, abundantly sufficient to expiate the sins of the whole world." The Heidelbergh Catechism also says, Ques. 37. "What dost thou understand by the words, he suffered? Answer. That he, all the time that he lived upon earth, but espécially at the end of his life, sustained in body and soul, the wrath of God against the sins of all mankind: that so by his passion, as the only propitiatory sacrifice, he might redeem our body and soul from everlasting damnation, and obtain for us the favour of God, righteousness and eternal life." In reply, the Calvinists consent, that many of the confessions speak of the death of Christ, as a sacrifice, in its own nature, of immense value. They admit also, that in suffering the death of the cross for believers, Christ did display God's indignation against all sin; for if Christ must die to procure the pardon of one sin, great indeed is the divine hatred of every sin. This display of the divine hatred of all sin, however, was merely incidental to the making of atonement, and not the ultimate or chief object of the atonement. Should it be demanded, "What truths are exhibited by the atoning sacrifice ?” the Calvinists and Hopkinsians would both answer; "that men are sinners, that God is displeased with all sin; and that should God pardon the sinner, he is not in the least warranted to conclude, that the Holy One is reconciled to transgression, or has abrogated his holy law." These same truths, say the advocates for a definite atonement, are clearly taught in the divine word; but does the written display of God's glory, in loving mercy, while he loves his law and hates sin, make an atonement? The eternal damnation of the rebel angels is a display of the same truths; but does the exhibition of the smoke of torment, ascending for ever, prepare the way for any sinner's justification?" "No!" Why not? Should one creature be damned, and all others saved, it could not be said, that God had made no exhibition of his abhorrence of sin. All which is urged, concerning the manifestation of the real disposition of the Godhead, against transgression, will be admitted; with this exception, that the manifestation of holy indignation constitutes no expiation of guilt. The nature of the sacrifice of Christ is such, that God can, for aught a creature can discover, saye one or any assignable

number of sinners, for whom it may have pleased God that his Son shall be a substitute. If nothing more is intended by general, or unlimited atonement, than this, there will be no longer any dispute upon the subject. But it is demanded; "for what end was Christ born of a woman, and made under the law, in the form of a servant?" All answer, he was united to humanity, that he might be "made perfect" as a Saviour, who could obey and suffer. "For what end did he obey and suffer?"

*Answer by the Hopkinsians. He obeyed and suffered that an innocent person, divine in his attributes, might manifest in the clearest manner God's infinite abhorrence of that infinite evil, sin; so that, after this exhibition, made by the sufferings of the Son of God, whose obedience might have excused him from all natural evil, should God release the sinner from damnation, and freely bestow on him unbought blessedness, no rational being in the universe could think God reconciled to disobedience, or unmindful of the dignity of his law, government and character.

Answer by the Calvinists. Christ obeyed and suffered, that he might fulfil the conditions of the covenant of redemption, and glorify the justice, as well as the mercy of Jehovah, in procuring such pardon and righteousness for the elect, as should in the view of the unyielding law, avail for their justification. The obedient life and the sufferings of the Son of God, therefore, had this specific object, the justification of the elect. To all the elect, and to no other persons did God originally design to extend the atonement. This doctrine is clearly taught in that truly Calvinistic confession, which was last quoted.

"This was the sovereign counsel, and most gracious will and purpose of God the Father, that the quickening and saving efficacy of the most precious death of his Son should extend to all the elect, for bestowing upon them alone the gift of justifying faith, thereby to bring them infallibly to salvation: that is, it was the will of God, that Christ by the blood of the cross, whereby he confirmed the new covenant, should effectually redeem out of every people, tribe, nation and language, all those, and those only, who were from eternity chosen to salvation, and given to him by the Father; that he should confer upon them

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