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derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is necessary that the body be in a natural and upright position. The following engraving represents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no organs should be in the least infringed upon, either by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which we make sounds, by condensation. All are familiar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking analogy between it and the body, in the act of speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is ike its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the abdominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of course, to blow with ease and power, one must take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything.
Heart & Lungs,
7 Long Ribs,
5 Short Ribs,..
14. This is a view of a well developed and naturally proportioned chest; with space for the ungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording ample room for the free action of the organs: it is the true model of the form of one who would live to a good old age.
15. TIGHT DRESSING. No one can enjoy good
health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or read, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitually compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air to purify the blood, and prevents the proper action of the diaphragm. The following engraving shows the alarming condition of the chest, when compressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hurried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands to a premature grave; besides entailing upon the offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to Contemplate. What is the difference between k.lling one's self in five minutes with a razor, and doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight as to prevent the air from coming between it and the body.
16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or thorax of a female, showing the condition of the bones of the body, as they appear after death, in every one who has habitually worn stays and corses, enforced by tight lacing. 'But,' says one, I do not lace too tight.' If you lace at all, you most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe
rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all the short ribs, from the lower end of the breast. bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward the spine, so that the liver, stomach, and other digestive organs in that vici nity, are pressed
into such a small compass, that their functious are greatly interrupted, and all the vessels,
bones and viscera are more or less distorted and enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well.
17. This engraving, of a bell-shaped glass, C, C, shows how the air gets into the lungs, and some of its effects. A head is placed on the cork, T, representing the wind-pipe, and having a hole through Cit. L, represents a bladder, tied to the lower end of the cork, to indicate a lung. At D, is seen the diaphragm. The cavity of the bell represents
the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lung are: there is no communication with the external air, except through the hole in the cork; air, en tering through that hole, can go only into the blad der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be the consequence, which can be supplied with sir, only through the hole in the cork; the air expanding the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm is elevated again, the air will be forced from the bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhausted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, dominal muscles; hence, the comparison between and of the contraction and elongation of the abthe vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is distinctly seen.
MUSCULAR ACTION. These two engravings represent some muscular fibres in two states: the upper one at rest, with a relaxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres, as seen under the microscope; and the lower one in
a state of contraction, and the fibrs in zigzag lines, with a similar nervous filament passing over them: apply the principle to all muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; but for further information, see the Author's large work on Physiology and Psychology, which will be published as soon as convenient.
22. This engraving represents the larynx, or vocal box, at 1, near the top of the wind-pipe, 2; the bronchial tubes, or branches of the trachea 3, 4, going t each lung; the left lung.s whole; the sistance of the right one is removed, to shov the ramifications of the bronchial twigs, termi
nating in the
air-cells, 7, 7, 8, like leaves
on the trees. The bronchial tubes are the three branches of
pipe, and enter the lungs about one third of the distance from the upper end: hence, how foolish for persons having a sore throat, or larynx, to suppose they have the bronchitis; which consists in a diseased state of the bronchia; generally brought on by an improper mode of breathing, or speaking, &c., with exposure. The remedy may be found in the practice here recommended, with a free use of cold soft water over the whole body, and bandages wet with the same, placed about the chest and neck, to be removed every few ours, as they become dry.
23. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis: N, F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected with the chordæ vocales, (vocal cords, or ligaments,) T, V, stretching across from the top of the arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage: these cords can be elongated, and enlarged to produce lower souris, and contracted and diminished for gher ones: and, at the same time, separated from each other, and allowing more condensed air to pass for the former purposes; or brought nearer together, to favor the latter: there are a great many muscles attached to the larynx, to give variety to the modifications o voice in speech and song.