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#tances the most odious, and even contrary, to their nature; and then to perplex them about the propriety of their conduct in fuch circumftances; all this may fharpen the wit, but it can hardly fail to corrupt the morals of the most guarded but when difcuffions of this kind fall into the hands of the vagar, whofe ignorance miftakes imaginary cafes for real ones, a is no wonder they should prove fo deftructive; for nothing can be more pernicious to the morals of fociety, than for the pear in general to think the principles of right and wrong depen.ext on circumstances, or that by fubtilty they may be conver to each other. What pretty encouragement, for inftance, it not be for confcientious domeftics, to rob and plunder terr mafters at pleafure, if they knew that one of the mor trans theological focieties in the world maintained the trut following propofitions: "Famuli atque famula doma funt occultè heris fuis fubripere ad compenfandam operar. quam majorem judicant falario quod recipiunt."

fi aliquid accipiunt ex prefumptâ voluntate domin., an tionabiliter perfuadant dominum non fore in committunt peccatum,"


Again, fine encouragement to disobedient wires c "Poffunt liberi, fi parentes fæpe rogati et tem abnuunt, illis fubripere, animi relaxand.

confuetudo et conditio permittit."

"Mulier, etiam prohibente marito. potef eleemofynas aut donationes pro libito zem recreatione honefta facere et comparanc men and children are doubtless ver may confcientiously make ufe of t cufe alfo have thefe reverend Father ried and fingle, for the in "Si honefta puella, invita ar as iffet, ante animationem f yolunt, ne honorem inde eft ipfa vita."—“ AD femper verfatur in f fterilitatis, ut effugi cum jufta caufa fLz ut hoc faciat, qvam = periculo fpiritua

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Extracts of the dangerous Affertions of the Jesuits.

bens fimplicem fornicationem eum adhibita prudenti cautione pro honefta educatione prolis, fi nafcatur.-Idem de pollutione, præfertim quando eft neceffaria ad fanitatem, &c." Nav, fo very fearful are our confcientious Jefuits of declaring things to be criminal, that they are equally at a lofs to understand pative precepts, as the laws of nature. Thus, in the moral the ology of Efcobar, it is held a doubt, whether the most infamous and unnatural of crimes, be punishable by law, or forbidden by the bull of Pius V. Mafculus, caufa libidinis mafculum rapiens, eft, et non eft, ordinariæ legis poenæ obnoxius. Obnoxius non eft raptor mafculi capitali legis pœnæ, &c.-Clericus rem habens cum fœmina in vafe præpoftero, incurrit, et non incurrit, pœnas Bullæ.

"Clericus fodomiticè patiens, incidit, et non incidit pa nas Bullæ.-Clericus crimen fodomiticum, femel, bis, aut te perpetrans, incurrit, et non incurrit, præfatæ Bullæ pœnas. Incurrit profecto.-Non incurrit, quia in Bulla illa pontifex pœnas infligit clericis fodomiam exercentibus; at in jure intel guntur hi qui aliquid frequenti ufu efficiunt." Is not this excellent cafuiftry? "Nimis rigidam (continues this Writer) effe primam partem reor; ideo teneo fecundam. Unde putaria non fufficere unicum lapfum, nec fi bis aut ter quis tale crimen commiferit, ut Bullæ pœnis fubjiciatur?" Can any thing be more abominable than this proftitution of human reafon, tending to confound all ideas of right and wrong, and encourage men to purfue whatever their inordinate appetites may suggest?

A better specimen of Jefuiflical cafuiftry in general, canno be given, than is to be met with in their moral decifions concerning the wages of iniquity. It is made a famous queftion with them," Whether a Judge is bound to restore a sum of money, which he may have taken as a bribe, to give a favourable fentence?" The most approved answer to which question runs thus. If a judge receive a bribe to pass a juft sentence, he is bound to reftore it; because he ought to do justice without a bribe, and therefore the party hath nothing for his money but what is his right. But if the judge be bribed to pafs an unjuf fentence, he is not obliged in confcience to make any reftitution."

It is with the greateft juftice that governments, as well as mankind in general, have long held the propofitions of thefe Fa thers, refpecting homicide, parricide, and high treafon, in the utmost horror. They endeavour to apologize, indeed, for treating fuch matters, by faying that, in propofing a queftion, they neither affirm nor deny the propofition it contains: thus, fay they, it is made a queftion in the fchools, Whether it be lawful to kill an innocent perfon? And what crime is there in afking


fuch a question? and in what manner can it tend to the breach of the public peace? And yet if the queftion, Whether it is lawful to kill a tyrant? be efteemed dangerous and feditious, the former is certainly much more fo." All this, however, is tor much in their ufual ftrain of cavilling, to carry any weigh To make ufe of fuch queftions in the fchools, or eliewhere, merely to exercise the understanding, is as abfurd and dangerous as it would be to make ufe of fwords, inftead of foils, a fencing school.

On the whole, we are greatly furprized that these cr from the writings of the Jefuits, fhould be publishes French language, by thofe who pretend to be their enem and feek to expose them by expofing their tenets Tre we conceive, would have taught those who banish t to have banished their writings along with them.

Hiftoire de L' Empire de Ruffie fous Pierre le Gran
teur de l' Hiftoire de Charles XII. Tom.
The Hiftory of the Ruffian Empire, und
By Mr. Voltaire. 8vo. V


AVING formerly given our fence
lume of this work, as an hiftor

only to obferve farther on this head,
us no reason to change our opinion
us, indeed, that Mr. Voltaire hat:
of Ruffia, with the authentic
with a view to his compofing a
gyric of Peter the Great,
hath executed with the mot
if not always in a manner rea
tected preceding Hiftoriam, 1
abfurdities, is very eviden
more probable, at leaf.
At the fame time, we
to obferve, that he com
and mistakes in the fu
out to the Reader.

This fecond pr

at the time wher. S

firft: the confer paign of Pruci

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surrounded by an almoft innumerable body of Turks and Ta tars, and was obliged to fue for peace; which, fortunately for himself, his wife, and army, he obtained, tho' reduced, for want of water and provifions, to the moft defperate circumftances. It was in conûderation of the eminent fervices done him in this critical juncture, by his favourite Catherine, that he afterwards determined to have her crowned Emprefs of Rua It was not till after the marriage of his fon Alexis, however, that he publicly declared his own matrimonial connection with this extraordinary woman; the companion of his wars and voyages, the partner of his dignity, and fucceffor to his throne. A very fingular adventure is related of a brother of this Heroine, by a perton who was at that time in the fervice of the Czar, and fpeaks of it as an eye-witnefs of the fact. An Envoy from Au guftus King of Poland, to Czar Peter, being on his return to Dreiden by the way of Courland, happened to fee a poor man wh feemed in great ditrefs, infulted by fome people at the inn whe?? he stopped; to whom the injured ftranger faid, with fome refentment, that they would not treat him thus, if he could but gin admiflion to the Czar, and that he had more powerful proteins at Court than they might poffibly imagine. On hearing th the Envoy had the curiofity to afk the man fome queftions; from the answers to which, and on confidering his features attentively, wherein he discovered a refemblance to the Emprefs, he conceiv ed this unfortunate perfon might be her relation. After his r turn to Drefden, therefore, he wrote an account of the adve ture, and his fufpicions, to a friend at Petersburg; who found means to get the letter fhewn to the Czar. On this, orders were immediately difpatched to Prince Repnin, Governor of Riga, to make fearch after the man defcribed in the letter: which was accordingly done by an intelligent perfon, fent by Prince Repnin to Mittau for that purpofe. On examination, he faid his name was Charles Scavronski, that he was the fea of a Gentleman of Lithuania, who died during the wars in PoJand, and left two children, a boy and girl, in the cradle. That neither of them had any other education, than could be had in that general ftate of defolation in which every thing was aban doned. Scavronski parted from his fifter in his infancy, knew nothing more of her, than that he was taken prifoner at Ma rienbourg, in 704; and imagined the might be fill with Prince Menzikoff, with whom fre might have made her fortune.

Prince Repnin, purfuant to the orders of the Czar, caufe Scavronski to be brought to Riga, under pretence of his being? tegnil; a kind of information was made out against him, and at fent under a guard to Petersburg, with orders that he

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be well treated during the journey. On his arrival at


Peterburg, he was conducted to the houfe of an Officer, called Shepleff; who, being inftructed in the part he was to : act, drew from his prifoner fuch information as he wanted, about his former circumftances and condition; telling him at the fame time, that the accufation laid against him at Riga, was a very ferious affair; that he would do well, therefore, to prefent à petition to his Majefty; and that he would himself take care he should have an opportunity of delivering it. The next day the Czar came to dine with Shepleff; when Scavronski was prefented to him. The Monarch asked him feveral questions; and was convinced by the ingenuoufnefs of his replies, that he was really the brother of the Czarina. Both had been in Livonia during their infancy; and the answers made by Scavronski to the questions put to him by the Czar, were entirely conformable to what his wife had told him of her birth and misfortunes. The Czar, not doubting the truth, propofed, therefore, next day to the Empress, to go and dine with Shepleff: where, after dinner, he ordered the fame perfon to be brought before him, who was examined the day before. He was introduced accordingly, in the fame travelling garb in which he came to Peterburg; the Czar defiring he should appear in the condition to which his ill-fortune had accustomed him. He interrogated him again as before; and after his examination, addreffed the C rina and faid, This man is your brother: then, turning prifoner, Come Charles, faid he, kifs the hand of the Eme embrace your fifter. The Author of this relation adës, me Emprefs fainted away at the furprize; and, when the ener herself, the Czar faid, What is there ftrange in all c Gentleman is my brother-in-law; if he hath merit. thing for him; if he has not, we will do proceeds the manufcript from which Mr. Vot taken the relation of this adventure. from other information, that this Ge Count; that he married a young Lair a had two daughters, who were afterwar of the first rank in Ruffia.

Our Author proceeds to gire of the year 1712; the refignat of Baron Goertz; the capt vafion of Finland, and the bock: the fame Steimback. feat of Pultowa, reven irruption he made int vided only with cords f wafte all before the like the other Gener


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