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amufements, and pleasures in which they might indulge themfelves without blufhing. Their women were free, esteemed, and refpected; one of the moft certain figns of a flourishing state: an equal fign of its wifdom, alfo, was that they had, neverthelefs, little to do with public affairs. Their young men, it is true, gave into the fame exceffes as the youth of all our great cities now generally do.Nothing was lefs common among the Greeks than chastity; that fublime virtue was held in no efteem among them; nor was any body fus prized at a man's living with a woman without marrying her, because the practice was general. Even the Philofophers themselves did not difdain to adopt this cuftom of the vulgar. Plato, Diogenes, Ariftippus, were the profeffed admirers of feveral Courtezans; and Socrates himself was not afhamed affiduously to pay court to the fair Afpafia. There were not wanting, however, fome who, on the other hand, recommended the virtue of continence. Democritus, in particular, taught, that nothing was fo difgraceful and injurious to ftudy, as to converfe with the fex. Thales alfo taught, that in youth it was too early, and in age too late, to be married. This kind of philofophy, indeed, made but little way. The most beautiful part of the fpecies were interested to put a stop to its progrefs; and they had more powerful arms than the dry maxims, and vague reafonings, of their adverfaries. Thefe, however, were not the moft formidable opponents the fair fex had to encounter: the prepofterous indulgence, at this time, given to the moft unnatural paffions, and that by men of abilities and character, who fhould certainly have known better, threw as great an infult on the charms of their fair contemporaries, as it brought cternal infamy on themselves.
"But, fays our Author, notwithstanding the Grecks acquiefced in fo open a violation of their laws, the wileft to w ever inftituted, it must be allowed, that the people in were much happier than they are at prefent. If there 24 at fubfift a perfect equality of conditions among the craz at leaft, that the meaneft Citizen had an equal
ence with the highest. There was no fuch that
none of that unhappy race of men which we call labourers, who do not even enjoy the advantages of their fervitude. Reduced to the neceffity of cultivating the earth, and gathering its productions for others; oppreffed with the burthen of public taxes, expofed to all the accidental lofles occafioned by the rigour of the feafons; defpifed, infultel, and unconscious of any greater pleafure, than the mere animal enjoys in digefting its food, and propagating is fpecies, I cannot conceive the value of their pretended liberty. But I imagine, that the flavery which we impute to a ftate of barbarifm, is in reality lefs barbarous than that fate of meannefs and fervility in which two thirds of mankind actually languith at this day."
We learn from the dedication of this performance, to the King of Poland, Duke of Lorrain, that the name of this ingenious young Writer, is Linguet; and are informed by the preface, that he is now engaged in writing the Hiftory of the Age of Auguftus, on the fame plan; in the completion of which undertaking, we wish him all that fuccefs to which his rifing ment feems to entitle him.
Introductio ad Philofophiam Naturalem. Autore Petro l'an Alt chenbrock. Or,
An Introduction to Natural Philofophy. 4to. 2 vols. Printed for Luchtmans at Leyden, 1763.
Na preface to this work, by Mr. Lulofs the Editor, is given a fketch of its hiftory, from the first publication of the Author's Epitome Elementorum Phyfico-Mathematicorum, in the yer 1726, to that of the prefent performance; his plan having been gradually improving, as may be feen by his Elementa Phyne, of 1734 and 1741, and his Inflitutiones, publifhed in 1748 the Jatter work having been tranflated into most of the European languages, and univerfally taught in our academies, as a compleat fyftem of phyfics. Our laborious Profeffor, however, fil making daily acquifitions in the fcience, and accumulating a number of new experiments, conceived the defign of improving his plan fill farther, in the prefent Introduction; which, it must be allowed, is, in every refpect, greatly fuperior to any of his former publications, and had been probably much more fo, had he furvived to put a finishing hand to the work. But this talk was referved for his ingenious Colleague above-mentioned, whofe high opinion of the whole, may be learnt by the following paffage.
Licet fortaffis pofterioribus capitibus quædam adjeciffet Cl. Auctor, & ultimom in iis limam adhibere ipfi licuifit; omnia
tamen quæ ad integrum fyftema phyficum pertinent, five utiliffima humano generi et perfpicuis demonftrationibus munita theoremata, five notatu maxime digna recentiorum obfervata et experimenta confideremus, in hac Introductione adeo copiore expofuit, ut pauciffima reperiantur fcripta, quæ hacce opus præftantià æquiparare pofiunt, utque, fi illud conferamus accuratius cum anterioribus Cl. Viri fyftematibus eximia ac ingenti labore nata huic incrementa acceffiffe facili negotio deprehendamus."
With due deference, however, to our learned Editor, and without meaning to detract in the least from the merit of his induflrious and indefatigable Author, we do not think any of the voluminous performances we have feen of this kind, entitled to the appellation of Phyfical Syftems. Phyfics, indeed, hath been fometimes called an experimental fcience, because it is founded on experiments; but there is a material diftinction between experiment and fcience, as there is between the rules of practical mechanics and the theory of natural philofophy. Our celebrated Profeffor hath, like many others, laid down the principles, and illuftrated the theory of mechanics, with fuccefs: but neither are the phyfical principles he hath affumed, juftly founded on experiment; nor do the experiments he hath recorded, ferve. to confirm fuch principles. Add to this, that occult qualities: are no more admiffible as phyfical, than as mechanical elements; nor do any number of irreconcilable and indigefted experiments, form a theory of any kind whatever. But, to explain ourselves more fully on this head; which is the more neceffary at this time, as our Natural Philofophers, as they are called, follow each other implicitly in the fame beaten track, without feeming to fufpect the fallibility of their predeceffors. Thus our learned Profeffor, in the beginning of his performance, makes no hefitation to adopt the regula philofophandi of Sir Ifaac Newton, and thence mistakenly to deduce, what he calls, the univerfal qualities of all bodies. Let us examine, however, how fome of thefe qualities agree with the nature and laws of motion, as laid down by the fame Philofophers.
It is, from an erroneous conclufion, taken for granted, that the elements of a body are folid and impenetrable, and that they move about in a perfect vacuum. It is alfo fuppofed, that motion may be given to them, when at reft in fuch a vacuum; through which they will move quicker, if urged by a greater impulle than if by a lefs, and vice verfa. And yet our Author declares, that all motion, however quick, mut take up fome time. "Omnis motus, utcunque celer fucrit, fit in tempore, nec ullus motus fieri poteft in initanti." But, if an impenetrable body exist at reft in a perfect vacuum, what reafon can polibly be given, that it is not moved by a fmall impulfe, (if moved
at all) as quick as by a great one? Or that, when impelled by either, it would not move through fuch a vacuum inftantaneoofly? The refiftance to fuch impulfe, being null, it would bear the fame proportion to a greater as to a smaller one; fo that, if the impulfe had any effect to make the body change its place, what fhould hinder it from doing fo inftantaneously, and that to any diflance indefinitely? Where there is no refiftance to an impulfe, what fhould occafion the motion, confequent thereon, to take up any certain time? Will it be faid, the vis inertia of the body? What is that vis inertia? Or how can it exist in an impenetrable body, lying at reft in vacuo? That all palpable bodies have a quality, which, with no great impropriety, may be termed a vis inertia, is certain; and alfo, that the motion of fuch body must neceffarily take up time. But, if a phyfical caufe can be affigned for both this quality and phenomenon, it is quite unphilofophical to fuppofe them physical principles. And whether this caufe fuggeft itself or not, it is certain that mechanical principles being dependent on phyfical, fhould never be inconfiftent with them. The truth is, that the laws of motion, affumed by our Author and others, are not arbitrary principles, to be attributed immediately to the Deity, as they fuppofe; but are merely fecondary mechanical principles, flowing, as a neceflary effect, from others ftill more general. Thus the elements of body take up time, in moving from one place to another, and that in proportion to the momentum of. the impulfe given them; because they move in a refifting medium; which must be made to give way fucceffively, and cannot overcome a great impulfe in the fame time as a small one. We throw out these hints, however, only by way of caution to the young Student, that he may not miftake a fyftem of practical mechanics, for a fyftem of natural philofophy.
With regard to many of our Author's experiments alfo, we think them too vague and incoherently related, to be of much fervice to phyfical theory; particularly fome of his electrical obfervations, and his remarks De corporibus lucem bibentibus. But, notwithstanding thefe and other fimilar objections, that might be made to this work, confidered as a fyftem, it is undoubtedly the best and compleatcft Introduction to Phyfical Science now extant. The experiments are numerous, and are illuftrated by a great variety of plates, well defigned and engraved, the whole doing honour, in this respect, as well to the Editor as to the Artifts concerned in the execution of this elegant work.
Extrait des Affertions dangereufes et pernicieufes en tout genre, que foi-difans Jefuites ont, dans tous les tems et perfeverament, foutenues, enfeignées et publiées dans leurs Livres, avec Approbation de leurs Superieurs et Generaux. &c. Or,
Extracts of Aflertions of the most pernicious and dangerous Tendency, held by the Jefuits, and conftantly maintained, taught, and publifhed in their Writings, with the Approbation of their Generals and Superiors; stated and authenticated by the Commiffioners of the Parliament of Paris, appointed to execute the Refolution of the Court of the 31st of August, and the Arrêt of the 3d of September following, on the Books, Thefes, and other Works of the Jefuits. 12mo, 3 Vols. Paris and Amfterdam, 1763.
HE great avidity with which this work hath been received in France, where four editions were bought up as faft as they iffued from the prefs, feems to be a proof how well fatisfied the public in general are, with the measures lately taken in that. kingdom, to extirpate this famous Society. To give every one his due, however, we cannot help thinking this reverend Fraternity a little hardly dealt by, in the prefent inftance. The virulence, at leaft, with which they have been profecuted, doth no honour to the motives for precipitating their deftruction. The measure of public hatred to this Society, and probably of its own iniquity, hath indeed been long fince full; and it is not uncommon, in the courfe of Providence, to fee thofe who have long triumphed over juftice with impunity, meet condign punishment in falling themfelves a victim to injuftice. The Jefuits have certainly played their own game a confiderable while, as well as feveral other religious orders of the church of Rome: at the fame time, however, it cannot be denied but they have been as ufeful to community as moft others; and though fome of the latter may poffibly be miftaken enough to rejoice in the fall of this Society, it may, in all probability, be only the fpeedy forerunner of their own ruin; for let them think of their inftitutions as they will, fuch is the end which, as the thief faid to his comrade, they must all come to.
If the Jefuits were the worst of the religious orders in France, they were undoubtedly very bad indeed; but they were afluredly the most politic, and confequently the moft difficult to be dealt with, by those who might have an ecclefiaftical revolution in view. It was expedient, therefore, for the latter, to embrace the first opportunity to difable fuch powerful opponents. The difgrace which this Society lately fell into in Portugal afforded an occafion not to be neglected. Every inftance of their misconduct therefore has been collected and charged upon them; and, as if this were infufficient, behold, three volumes of propofitions, artfully extracted