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brigades into which the company is divided; each brigade confifting of five, namely an Exempt and four Archers.
Being divided into different brigades, they are quartered in the feveral towns within their department, as near as poffible at equal distances; fo as not to be more than half a day from the one to the other; from whence it is their duty to fet out every day on horfeback; the one from one fide of the town, and the next from the other; fo that one brigade going towards the east or fouth, according as the road lies, may meet at the extremity of their patrole the other brigade, that sets out at the fame time towards the weft or the north; and the next day each going the oppofite ways, again meet with the other brigades, fetting out to meet them, in the like manner, from the other fides; fo that each brigade is alternately to meet, every other day, the one and the other, that are quartered on each fide in the adjoining diftrics: by this communication they are able to carry on a string of intelligence, from one extremity of their department, and, I may fay, from one extremity of the kingdom, to the other. It is by thefe means especially, that they inform one another of all public diforders, robberies, or other crimes, that have been committed in their own, or in any dif tant districts; and in cafe of the offenders having escaped, can tranfmit the defcription of his perfon, for each to fearch and apprehend him. This intelligence is alfo communicated in another yet fhorter method, by fending the defcription, or fignalement, as it is called, of the fugitive, to the public office of the Marcchauffée at Paris, where it it immediately printed, and, a proper number of bills fent by the poft to every Prevot general, in their feveral departments, who difperfe them to their feveral biales: thus, within a few days, notice of the crime, and a defeription of the criminal, are fignified all over the kingdom, to thofe very Officers whofe duty it is to apprehend them. It is by this method likewife that they generally find out and retake al deferters from the army. So that it is fearcely poffible for an offender of any kind whatever to fhelter himfelf from juftice, throughout the circumference of this wide and extended king
Having defcribed the order and diftribution of thefe Archers of the Marechauffee, the Writer, in the next place, gives an account of the fervice they perform, the extent of their power, and the manner of exerting it. Among various fervices which he enumerates, "They guard the Receivers of the public revenues; and, if required, are ready to do the fame to any Travellers, apprchenfive of danger, upon notice given, and the payment of a certain price, fixed at fo much a league."
Thefe regulations are admirably well calculated for the purpofe of public fecurity; and though we are aware of the jealoufy which very juftly prevails in all free kingdoms against every appearance of military establishment, yet we are perfuaded, that a guard, in the nature of our light horfe, might, under the direction of the civil Magiftrate, be made to perform all the functions of the Marechauffee with good effect.
With regard to the regulations for preventing ftreet robberies, the inhabitants are protected, day and night, by a guard of armed and difciplined watchmen, under the denomination of the Guet à Cheval, and Guet à Pied, who are never to serve out of the walls of the city.
The Guet à Cheval is a company composed of two hundred effective men, and twenty fupernumeraries, commanded by a chief, who takes his orders from the Lieutenant de Police, or the Minifter who has the department of Paris. "This company is divided into brigades; each brigade is compofed of a Brigadier and four horfemen: four brigades, or twenty men, patrole the streets in the day time; and fifteen brigades, or feventyfive men, patrole the ftreets at night: and the whole, in their turns, perform these separate duties alternately.
"The day guard being thus divided, traverfe the city in different patroles, and frequently making their rounds, appear, by the quickness of the circulation, to be more in number than what they really are. Each brigade in his turn goes through all the public ftreets, fquares, and markets, and traverfes along the quays; in doing which, it is their duty to interpofe upon the appearance of any tumult and diforder; to feparate and drive away all perfons wrangling and quarrelling together; to pursue all fugitives upon the firft outcry; and lay hold on the offenders they are charged with, and conduct them either to the Commiflary neareft at hand, or to the Lieutenant de Police, as may be required.
"The night brigades, being fifteen in number, as abovementioned, meet towards evening at the places appointed, to receive the parole and order, which is brought from the Commandant himself; and prescribes the routs they are to take; through what freets and fquares they are to pass, and at what particular hours; where, and how often, they are to stop; and where to apply for affiftance in cafe of need. The Brigadiers only are entrusted with the fecrecy of thefe orders, which vary every night; and frequently are changed in one and the fame night."
The Guet à Pied, is a body of four hundred men, in like manner divided into a day and a night guard; one hundred and five being appointed for the day, and the remaining two hundred and ninety-five divide, as near as may be, the night duty; half on one night, and half the next, alternately. The day guardis formed into fifteen different parties, feven in each; and are distributed in fifteen different guard-rooms, lately built, in different quarters of the city; where they remain all day, with a centinel at the door, who is relieved every two hours: from. hence they are ready at the first call, to give their affistance upon any event that occafion a disturbance of the peace.
"The night guard aflembles at the deftined places upon the clofe of the day, the ferjeants only approach the order: the duty of these is, to march and patrole the ftreets, in the fame manner as the horse guard, and to perform all other duties in commen with them and further, also to search more narrowly into all the bye-alleys where there are no thorough-fares; into all ftalls and rubbifh; and in the boats on the river, to discover if any perfons lie concealed there: fo foon as their affiftance is required upon any tumult or diforder, they fend an advanced centinel, to give notice to the other parties, to join them; who are immediately to change their pofts, and conform to what is required. They make their report every morning to certain officers, to whom the chief command is now fubftituted, in the room of the Chevalier du Guet, which commiffion has beenfometime ago fuppreffed.
"It must be obferved,, that the night-watch in general, both of horse and foot, are never to remain more than one hour in a place; and it is ufual for the commanding officers of each, to fend out their fpies, to examine if the orders are punctually executed, and if the refpective corps are at their proper ftations, and at the appointed times; all which obliges them in general to be exactly attentive to the execution of their duty. Thefe ftations are changed every night in different parts of the city; fo that the fame guard is never two nights together in the fame place; by which means they cannot receive any bribe or contribution for connivance, from any particular quarter; and, as the orders of the night are entrufted only to the brigadiers or ferjeants, the private men never know where they are to be, and confequently perfons of bad defigns can take no advantage of putting their enterprize into execution, by the means of a previous intelligence of the intended ftations."
We cannot fufficiently applaud the good fenfe and policy of thefe inftitutions, which are excellently contrived to prevent any negligence of duty, or any corrupt combination among the
guards. How greatly preferable is this to the establishment of thofe miferable and moftly decrepid wretches whom we call watchmen, who frequently neglect their duty, and often willfully connive at malefactors? Why may not a set of able-bodied men properly armed, be appointed to patrole the streets, and to vary their stations every night to different parts of the city? Such a regulation would certainly be more effectual for the public fecurity; and were we to compare the charge of fuch an establishment, with the amount of the fums raised in our several pa rifhes for the pay of our useless watch, the difference of expence would be found very inconfiderable. On the whole, most of the provifions in the French police might be introduced here; with this caution, that the guards employed for this purpose, be not put on a military establishment. To avoid this, they may, with very little alteration, be appointed and controuled by the fame power as our nightly watch.
There are many other obfervable and valuable particulars in this account of the French Police, for which we are obliged to refer the Reader to the treatise itself. We will only add, that ufeful as the matter is, it receives no fmall addition from the manner in which it is conveyed: the Writer having throughout expressed himself with precifion, perspicuity, and judgment.
A complete Syftem of aftronomical Chronology, unfolding the Scriptures: In which, I. The Chronology of the Maforetic Hebrew text is proved, by aftronomical arguments, to be genuine and authentic, without error and without corruption. II. The date of the creation is fixed. III. The year, month, day of the month, and day of the week, in which the Ifraelites went out of Egypt, are aftertained. IV. It is clearly proved, that at the going out of Egypt, the original Sabbath was changed by divine legislative authority. V. It is proved, that our Saviour rofe from the dead on the feventh day of the week, in the uninterrupted fries of weeks from the creation, and that the original feventh day, or patriarchal Sabbath revived with him. VI. It is proved, that our Saviour gave up the ghost upon the cross, on the very month, day, hour, and minute, on which the Pafchal Lamb was ordered by the law to be flain. VII. The chronology of the five books of Mofes is completed in all its particulars. VIII. The aftronomical epacha of the gospel, and the year, month, and day of Chrift's death are determined. By John Kennedy, Rector of Bradley in Derbyfhire. 4to. l. 5 s. bound. Davis and Reymers.
Tis feveral years fince Mr. Kennedy first intimated his
I defign, of giving the world a fyftem of facreanology,
founded on aftronomical principles. The manner in which he then treated the character of the favourite aftronomer and chronologift of the laft and prefent age *, was by no means calculated to enfure a favourable reception of his own scheme. It is no wonder, therefore, if an apparent want of candour in him, should occafion a real one in the advocates for those systems he confeffedly laboured to overthrow. We muft do him the juftice, nevertheless, to own, that, in the prefent work, he hath in a great meafure avoided running into thofe reflections, which were fo juftly exceptionable in his former treatise. It is for this reafon, added to that of the importance of the defign, and the time and pains our laborious Author hath bestowed on this voluminous work, that we think him entitled to a greater share of attention and regard than fo unpromifing and unpopular an attempt might otherwife acquire. Mr. Kennedy is indeed by no means happy either in his flyle or method; a certain conftitutional warmth of expreffion fometimes debafing the one, and the want of being verfed in literary compofition defacing the "other not but that it must be allowed a very arduous task, in a work of fo comprehenfive a nature, to display at once the abilities and knowlege of an aftronomer, a chronologift, and a divine.
The principal view, in which this learned writer would chufe to be confidered, is probably that of a chronologift; but, as the certainty of his chronological tables will be imagined to depend fo greatly on his aftronomical fyftem, we fhall enquire firft into the merit and validity of his difcoveries in that science. The most confiderable of these are his pretenfions to determine the exact length of a folar day, and of a tropical year, and his fhewing them to be invariable and commenfurate to each other. Aftronomers affirm and will undertake to demonftrate by obfervation, that folar days are not of equal length during the whole year; hence are framed their tables of the equation of time, all which, Mr. Kennedy takes upon him to affert in plain terms, are unaftronomical; every folar day being perfeAly equal. Again, with regard to the tropical year, the aftronomers, concluding they could not rely on the quantity of it, collected from obfervations that were made at the distance of one year, have chofen to determine it by taking the obfervations of two equinoxes at many years diftance from one another, and dividing the time between the obfervations by the number of revolutions the fun had made; this quantity fhewing the time of one revolution, or the pericd of the earth in her orbit: that is not with a mathematical precifion, but nearly fo; for by this