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To set himself in glory 'bove his peers,
44. This whole description of the fall of the angels and of the infernal abyss is conceived in the noblest style of poetry; the faming, rushing fall of the apostate angels, and the dark but fiery prison which received them, are perhaps the most sublime pictures which the human imagination ever produced.
74. It is a curious observation, that Homer places Hell as far beneath the earth as Heaven is above it; Virgil makes it twice as distant, and Milton here thrice as far,
O how unlike the place from whence they fell! 75
If thou beest he; but O how fallen! how changed
95 Can else inflict, do I repent or change, Though changed in outward lustre, that fix'd mind And high disdain from sense of injured merit, That with the Mightiest raised me to contend, And to the fierce contention brought along 100 Innumerable force of Spirits arm’d, That durst dislike his reign, and me preferring, His utmost pow'r with adverse pow'r opposed In dubious battle on the plains of Heav'n, And shook his throne. What though the field be lost? All is not lost; th' unconquerable will
106 And study of revenge, immortal hate, And courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might
110 81. Beelzebub, or the Lord of Flies, was worshipped at Ekron, 2 Kings, i. see also Matt. xii. 24.
82. Satan in Hebrew means an enemy.
84. The first speech of Satan is very noble, and the abrupt manner of its coinmencement is powerfully striking. Initations have been pointed out in this passage, of Isaiah xiv. Virgil, Æn. ii. 274. and Homer, Odyss. vi. 110. Others have also been remarked of Æschylus, Tasso, &c. but they seem to me to liave been coincidences rather than imitations.
Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace
So spake th' apostate Angel, though in pain, 125
1 That led th' embattled Seraphim to war Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds 130 Fearless, endanger'd heav'n's perpetual King, And put to proof his high supremacy, Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate; Too well I see and rue the dire event, That with sad overthrow and foul defeat
135 Hath lost us heav'n, and all this mighty host In horrible destruction laid thus low, As far as Gods and heav'nly essences Can perish : for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigour soon returns,
140 Though all our glory extinct, and happy state Here swallow'd up in endless misery. But what if he our conqu’ror (whom I now Of force believe almighty, since no less Than such could have o'erpower'd such force as ours) Have left us this our spirit and strength entire 148 Strongly to suffer and support our pains, That we may so suffice his vengeful ire,
116. Satan expresses by the word fale, his high and proud belief in the original and underived existence as well as immor. tality of the angels. Here is an admirable attention to the minutcat circumstances which might develope the character of the fallen spirit evident throughout the speech, and the reader's attention cannot be too strongly directed to its examination.
Or do him mightier service as his thralls
155 Whereto with speedy words th’ Arch-Fiend reply'd :
Fall’n Cherub, to be weak is miserable Doing or suffering: but of this be sure, To do aught good never will be our task, But ever to do ill our sole delight,
168 As being the contrary to his high will Whom we resist. If then his providence Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, Our labour must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil; 166 Which oft-times may succeed, so as perlaps Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb His inmost counsels from their destined aim. But see, the angry victor hath recall’d His ministers of vengeance and pursuit
174 Back to the gates of Heav'n; the sulph’rous hail Shot after us in storm, o'erblown hath laid The fiery surge, that from the precipice Of Heav'n received us falling; and the thunder, Wing'd with red lightning and impetuous rage, 175 Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless deep, Let us not slip th' occasion, whether scorn Or satiate fury yield it from our foe. Seest thou yon dreary plain, forlorn and wild, 180 The seat of desolation, void of light, Save what the glimm'ring of these livid flames Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend From off the tossing of these fiery waves, There rest, if any rest can harbour there, 185
170. Dr. Bentley has pointed out a contradiction between this passage and one in the sixth book. It is here said that the good augels pursued the fallen ones down to hell; in the other place, It is asserted, that the Messiah alone expelled them fronı heaven. The variation has been accounted for by the account being given by different relators-The one by the disconfited Satan, the other by the angel Raphael.
And reassembling our afflicted powers,
Thus Satan talking to his nearest mate
200 Leviathan, which God of all his works Created Lagest that swim the ocean stream; Him haply slumb'ring on the Norway foam The pilot of some small night-founder'd skiff Deeming some island, oft, as seamen tell, 205 With fixed anchor in his scaly rind Moors by his side under the lee, while night Invests the sea, and wished morn delays: So stretch'd out huge in length the Arch-Fiend lay Chain'd on the burning lake, nor ever thence 210 Had ris'n or heaved his head, but that the will And high permission of all-ruling Heav'n Left him at large to his own dark designs, That with reiterated crimes he might Heap on himself damnation, while he sought 215 Evil to others, and enraged might see How all his malice served but to bring forth
196. Virgil describes the bulk of one of the giants in the same manner. En, vi. 596.
199. Typhon or Typheus was one of the rebel giants, and Imprisoned by Jupner under Mount Ætna, or, as others say, in a cave near Tarsus, a city in Cilicia.
201. It has been qnestioned whether Milton supposed the Leviathan to be a whale or a crocodile.-It is most probable his ima. gination made him content with the description of this animal given in Job, and that his critical industry was not at all engaged In settling the question.
204. Bentiey has given a curious instance of his utter want of poetical feeling in proposing to change this epithet nightfoundered into nigh-foundered.
209. This verse, by its laboured length, well expresses the idea of Satan s immense bulk.