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485 moss in Scania. It appears from the descrip- • From what has been ascertained in regard to tion of the horns to be an extinct, or at least, an the strata,' says Mr. Jameson, in which these reunknown species.

mains have been found, it would appear that the 3. Fossil deer of Somme.-The horns, the known species are contained in newer beds than only parts hitherto discovered, show that this the unknown. Further, that the fossil remains animal, although nearly allied to the fallow-deer, of the known species are those of animals of must have been much larger than the fallow- the climate where they are now found: thus the deer. The horns occur in loose sand in the val- stag, ox, aurochs, roe-deer, fallow deer, now ley of

Somme in France, and in Germany. dwell, and have always dwelt, in cold countries; 4. Fossil deer of Etampes.-Allied to the rein- whereas the species which are regarded as undeer, but much smaller, not exceeding the roe in known appear to be analogous to those of warm size. The bones were found in abundance near countries: thus the great buffalo of Siberia can Etampes in France, imbedded in sand. only be compared with the buffalo of India, the

5. Fossil roe of Orleans.Found in the vici- arnee. M. Cuvier concludes that the facts hinity of Orleans. It occurs in limestone, along therto collected seem to announce, at least as with bones of the palæotherium. It is the only plainly as such imperfect documents can, that the instance known of the remains of a living spe- two sorts of fossil ruminants belong to two cies having been found along with those of ex- orders of alluvial deposites, and consequently to tinct species. But Cuvier enquires, May not two different geological epochas; that the one the bones belong to a species of roe, of which have been, and are now, daily becoming envethe distinctive characters lie in parts hitherto un- loped in alluvial matter; whereas, the others discovered?

have been the victims of the same revolution 6. Fossil roe of Somme.- Very nearly allied which destroyed the other species of the alluvial to the roe. Found in the peat of Somme. strata; such as mammoths, mastodons, and all

7. Fossil red deer or stag.Resembling the the multungula, the genera of which now exist red deer or stag. Its horns are found in peat- only in the torrid zone. bogs, or sand pits in Scotland, England, France,

Order V.-MULTUNGULA. Germany, and Italy.

8. Fossil fallow deer.Found in peat-bogs and Rhinoceros antiquitatis.-Only one fossil spemarl pits in Scotland and France.

cies has hitherto been discovered, which differs Bos, or.–1. Aurochs.-Cuvier considers this from the five living species, not only in structure, as distinct from the common ox, and it differs but in geographical distribution. It was first from the present varieties in being larger. Skulls noticed in the time of Grew, in alluvial soil near and horns of this species have been found in al- Canterbury. Sir E. Hone describes, in the Philuvial soil in England, Scotland, France, Ger- losophical Transactions for 1817,a nearly perfect many, and America.

head of this species, which was found in a cave 2. Common or.-The skulls of this species in limestone, near Plymouth. Similar remains also differ from those of the present existing have been found in many places of Germany, races, in being larger, and the direction of the France, and Italy. In Siberia, not only single horns being different. They occur in alluvial bones and skulls, but the whole animal, with the soil in many different parts of Europe, and are flesh and skin, have been discovered. considered by Cuvier as belonging to the original Hippopolamus.—Two fossil species have been race of the present domestic ox.

ascertained by Cuvier. The one, which is the 3. Large buffalo of Siberia.—The skull of this largest, is so very nearly allied to the species at animal is of great size, and appears to belong to present living on the surface of the earth, that it a species not at present known. It is not the is difficult to determine whether or no it is not common buffalo, nor can it be identified with the the same. Its fossil remains have been found in large buffalo of India, named arnee. Cuvier alluvial soil in France and Italy. The second conjectures that it must have lived at the same fossil species, and the smallest, not being larger time with the fossil elephant and rhinoceros, in than a hog, is well characterised, and is entirely the frozen regions of Siberia.

different from any of the existing species of 4. Fossil or, resembling the musk or of Ame- quadrupeds. rica.-More nearly resembling the American Tapir.—The tapir, until lately, was considered musk ox than any other species, and have hi- as an animal peculiar to the new world, and contherto been found only in Siberia.

fined to South America; but the recent discoThese fossil remains of deer and oxen may very of a new species in Sumatra proves that it be distinguished into two classes, the unknown also occurs in the old world. Two fossil speand the known ruminants. In the first class cies of this genus have been discovered in EuCuvier places the Irish elk, the small deer of rope. The one is named the small, the other Etampes, the stag of Scania, and the great the gigantic tapir, and both have been found in buffalo of Siberia; in the second class he places different parts of France, Germany, and Italy. the common stag, the common roe-buck, the Elephas jubatus, or primigenus, elephant or fallow deer, the aurochs, the ox which seems to mammoth. Of this genus two species are at prehave been the original of the domestic ox, the sent known as inhabitants of the earth. The buffalo with approximated horns, which appears one, which is confined to Africa, is named the to be analogous to the musk ox of Canada; and African elephant; the other, which is a native of there remains a dubious species, the great deer Asia, is named the Asiatic elephant. Only one of Somme, which much resembles the common fossil species has hitherto been discovered. It fallow-deer.

is the mammoth of the Russians. It differs froin


both the existing species, but agrees more nearly except that one of the fore legs was gone. The with the Asiatic than the African species. It entire spine, the pelvis, one shoulder-blade, and appears to have been clothed in fur, and provided three legs, were still held together by their ligawith a mane. Its bones have been found in many ments, and by some remains of the skin ; and different parts of this island; as in the alluvial the other shoulder-blade was found at a short soil around Loudon, in the county of Northamp- distance. The head remained, covered by the ton, at Gloucester, at Trenton, near Stafford, near dried skin, and the pupil of the eye was still Harwich, at Norwich, in the island of Sheppy, disti guishable. The brain also remained within in the river Medway, in Salisbury Plain, and in the skull, but a good deal shrunk and dried up; Flintshire in Wales; and similar remains have and one of the ears was

excellent preservabeen dug up in the north of Ireland. Bones of tion, still retaining a tuft of strong bristly hair. this animal have been dug up in Sweden, and The upper lip was a good deal eaten away, and Cuvier conjectures that the bones of supposed the under lip was entirely gone, so that the teeth giants, mentioned by the celebrated bishop Pon- were distinctly seen. The animal was a male, toppidan as having been found in Norway, are and had a long mane on its neck. remains of the fossil elephant. Torfæus men- * The skin was extremely thick and heavy, tions a head and tooth of this animal dug up in and as much of it remained as required the exthe island of Iceland. In Russia, in Europe, ertions of ten men to carry away, which they Poland, Germany, France, Holland, and Hun- did with considerable difficulty. More than gary, teeth and bones of this species of ele- thirty pounds weiglit of the hair and bristles of phant have been found in abundance. Hum- this animal were gathered from the wet sandboldt found teeth of this animal in North and bank, having been trampled into the mud by the South America. But it is in Asiatic Russia that white bears while devouring the carcase. Some they occur in greatest abundance. Pallas says, of the hair was presented to our Museum of that from the Don or the Tanais to Tichutskoi. Natural History by M. Targe, censor in the Lynoss, there is scarcely a river the bank of which ceum of Charlemagne. It consists of three disdoes not afford remains of the mammoth; and tinct kinds. One of these is stiff black bristles, these are frequently imbedded in, or covered a foot or more in length; another is thinner with alluvial soil containing marine productions. bristles, or 'coarse flexible hair, of a reddishThe bones are generally dispersed, seldom oc- brown color; and the third is a coarse reddishcuring in complete skeletons, and still more brown wool, which grew among the roots of the rarely do we find the fleshy part of the animal long hair. These afford an undeniable proof preserved. One of the most interesting in- that this animal had belonged to a race of elestances on record of the preservation of the car- phants inhabiting a cold region, with which we case of this animal is thus given by M. Cu- are now unacquainted, and by no means fitted to vier :

dwell in the torrid zone. It is also evident that • In the year 1799, a Tungusian fisherman this enormous animal must have been frozen up by observed a strange shapeless mass projecting the ice at the inoment of its death. Mr. Adams, from an ice-bank, near the mouth of a river in who bestowed the utmost care in collecting all the north of Siberia, the nature of which he did the parts of this animal, proposes to publish an not understand, and which was so high in the exact account of its osteology, which must be bank as to be beyond his reach. He next year an exceedingly valuable present to the philosoobserved the same object, which was then rather phical world. In the mean time, from the more disengaged from among the ice, but was still drawing I have now before me, I have every unable to conceive what it was. Towards the end reason to believe that the sockets of the teeth of of the following summer, 1801, he could dis- this northern elephant have the same proportinctly see that it was the frozen carcase of an tional lengths with those of other fossil eleenormous animal, the entire flank of which, and phants, of which the entire skulls have been one of its tusks, had become disengaged from found in other places.' the ice. In consequence of the ice beginning to Sus proavitus, hog.-Only single bones and melt earlier, and to a greater degree than usual teeth of this tribe have been hitherto met with; in 1803, the fifth year of this discovery, the some of these appear to belong to the sus scrofa, enormous carcase became entirely disengaged, or common hog; while others are of a dubious and fell dow from the ice craig on a sand-bank nature. They are found in loam, along with the forming part of the coast of the Arctic Ocean. remains of the elephant and rhinoceros, and even In the month of March of that year the Tun- imbedded in peat mosses. gusian carried away the two tusks, which he sold Mastodon. Mammoth of Blumenbach.—This for the value of fifty rubles; and at this time a is entirely a fossil genus, no living species havdrawing was made of the animal of which I ing hitherto been discovered in any part of the possess a copy.

world. It is more nearly allied to the elephant * Two years afterwards, or in 1806, Mr. than to any other animal of the present creation; Adams went to examine this animal, which still it appears to have been an herbivorous animal ; remaired on the sand bank where it had fallen and the largest species, the great mastodon of from the ice, but its body was then greatly mu- Cavier, was equal in size to the elephant. tilated. The Jukuts of the neighbourhood had Five species are described by Cuvier. 1. taken away considerable quantities of its flesh Great mastodon, mammoth chioticum of Bluto feed their dogs; and the wild animals, parti- menbach.—This species has been hitherto found cularly the white bears, had also feasted on the in greatest abundance in North America, near the carcase ; yet the skeleton remained quite entire, river Ohio, and remains of it have been dug up

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